Economics and Management (including Public Administration)
We propose a novel machine-learning-based approach to detect bid leakage in first-price sealed-bid auctions. We extract and analyze the data on more than 1.4 million Russian procurement auctions between 2014 and 2018. As bid leakage in each particular auction is tacit, the direct classification is impossible. Instead, we reduce the problem of bid leakage detection to Positive-Unlabeled Classification. The key idea is to regard the losing participants as fair and the winners as possibly corrupted. This allows us to estimate the prior probability of bid leakage in the sample, as well as the posterior probability of bid leakage for each specific auction. We find that at least 16% of auctions are exposed to bid leakage. Bid leakage is more likely in auctions with a higher reserve price, lower number of bidders and lower price fall, and where the winning bid is received in the last hour before the deadline.
The pocket data book contains main digital economy indicators for the Russian Federation. Contains information on the use of ICT by individuals and enterprises, e-government development, personnel for digital economy, telecommunications and ICT sector development. International comparisons are provided for a number of indicators. The data book includes information of the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat), the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Bank of Russia, OECD, Eurostat, ITU, World Intellectual Property Organisation, and results of own methodological and analytical studies of the HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge.
The report addresses the issue of business communication and its role in organizations in the aspects of personnel management. We study how communication influences the retention and good performance of personnel. Communications are an integral part of the activity of organizations. Communications largely determine the effectiveness of personnel management. Well-designed communications reduce the time of problem solving and of adaptation of employees, help in conflict resolutions etc. In spite of obvious importance of the communications in organization the studies of this problem require new approaches and methods. We explore mechanisms that help to keep the staff in organization and to create a desire to continue its activities in this organization. On base of social identity approach (H. Tajfel, J.C. Turner) and business psychology approach (S Benton, N. Ivanova,) we studied the Identity Focused Communication (IFC). This type of communication realizes, through integrated work of organization, the development of cognitive, value-motivational and behavioral characteristics of social identity. IFC can be considered as a human development technology which helps employers in clear understanding of values, professional and social role and pattern of behavior in organization. On this theoretical basis and case studies method in different organizations we observed the role of IFC in the development of organizational culture for rising of personnel engagement and loyalty. Results of this research can be useful for business counseling and business management process, development of personnel identity, loyalty, and performance. The results allow us to see new aspects in communication, develop training programs and staff development, and improve internal communication. Our results can develop the understanding of the semantic core of effective communication’s strategy of organization which include corporate “picture of world” and image of the organization. We can add the knowledge of professional values and patterns of behavioral and social roles. The data obtained can be considered as a pilot to build new hypotheses and further research on a broader sample and with the use of experimental procedures.
In the twenty-first century, universities worldwide have found themselves thrust into a great "brain race" as nations, both developed and developing, seek to enhance their place in the global knowledge economy. As the concept of the de-localized university—one that has radically expanded, perhaps even beyond national borders—grows, competing nations have begun reshaping aspects of their national systems to accommodate global standards and metrics.
In Professorial Pathways, Martin J. Finkelstein and Glen A. Jones consider how academic careers vary in countries that are fundamentally different in their organization and dynamics. Building on 25 years of scholarship, the book confronts major questions: What can we learn from the experience of other nations as they seek to balance the seemingly contradictory imperatives of expanding access and ensuring global competitiveness? What are the implications of this rapidly changing policy environment for the health of the academic professions on which university teaching and scholarship depends? And how can we advance the comparative study of higher education and, in particular, of the academic profession?
The volume brings together detailed case studies of the latest—and ever-changing—educational developments in ten countries across Europe (France, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia), Asia (China, India, Japan), North America (United States, Canada), and South America (Brazil). Essays written by respected scholars in the field identify the major structural features of national higher education systems and academic markets that directly shape academic work and careers. Professorial Pathways will be of interest to anyone who toils in the vineyards of comparative and international higher education.
Workshop concentrates on an interdisciplinary approach to modelling human behavior incorporating data mining and expert knowledge from behavioral sciences. Data analysis results extracted from clean data of laboratory experiments will be compared with noisy industrial datasets from the web e.g. Insights from behavioral sciences will help data scientists. Behavior scientists will see new inspirations to research from industrial data science. Market leaders in Big Data, as Microsoft, Facebook, and Google, have already realized the importance of experimental economics know-how for their business.
In Experimental Economics, although financial rewards restrict subjects preferences in experiments, exclusive application of analytical game theory is not enough to explain the collected data. It calls for the development and evaluation of more sophisticated models. The more data is used for evaluation, the more statistical significance can be achieved. Since large amounts of behavioral data are required to scan for regularities, along with automated agents needed to simulate and intervene in human interactions, Machine Learning is the tool of choice for research in Experimental Economics. This workshop is aimed at bringing together researchers from both Data Analysis and Economics in order to achieve mutually beneficial results.
This book discusses the role of regional design and visioning in the formation of regional territorial governance to offer a better understanding of (1) how a recognition of spatial dynamics and the visualization of spatial futures informs, and is informed by, planning frameworks and (2) how such design processes inform co-operation and collaboration on planning in metropolitan regions. It gathers theoretical reflections on these topics, and illustrates them by means of practical experiences in several European countries. Innovatively associating ideas with knowledge, it appeals to anyone with an interest in planning experiments in a post-regulative era. It aims at an increased understanding of how practices, engaged with the imagination of possible futures, support the creation of institutional capacity for strategic spatial planning at regional scales.
Water Conservation and Wastewater Treatment in BRICS Nations: Technologies, Challenges, Strategies, and Policies addresses issues of water resources—including combined sewer system overflows—assessing effects on water quality standards and protecting surface and sub-surface potable water from the intrusion of saline water due to sea level rise. The book's chapters incorporate both policies and practical aspects and serve as baseline information for future adaption plans in BRICS nations. Users will find detailed important information that is ideal for policymakers, water management specialists, BRICS nation undergraduate or university students, teachers and researchers.
The industrial development of emerging markets has been a powerful driver for mergers and acquisitions. The contributions collected in this book assess major M&A deals in the largest emerging capital markets (Brazil, Russia, India, China) and their role in shareholder value creation in the markets’ specific business environments. In addition, the book explores various dimensions of M&A deals in order to summarize the main trends in corporate control markets in the largest emerging countries, and how they differ from those in developed countries; to identify deal-performance relationships and the determinants of success or failure; to reveal the drivers for the premium in M&A deals; and to capture market responses to different M&A strategies. By doing so, the book makes a significant contribution to the literature, which has to date largely focused on developed markets.
In our research, we study what macroeconomic factors drive and influence the credit cycle. Also, our study contains four sections with theoretical and empirical parts, in which we describe how to measure credit cycles for developed and developing countries, and then we introduce an important indicator credit gap. Our results show the comparative analysis of credit cycles between different countries with various economic growth, and we built up an econometric model, which shows us the impact of macroeconomic factors according to credit cycles for developing and developed economies.
In the last decade Russia has searched for new alternative policies to compensate for its political deficiencies and to balance its rivals in one of the key areas of the approaching geopolitical rivalry, the sea. The Russian assertiveness seen in the Black Sea-Mediterranean basin has recently been a real concern for the international community. In the six chapters of this book, contributors explain Moscow’s newly perceived assertive foreign and security behavior in the Black Sea and Mediterranean basin from their own perspectives, and reach a conclusion about the limits and validity of this new Russian ascendance in the region.
This book is an anthology of essays penned by distinguished experts from around the world to commemorate life time contribution of Sanjaya Baru to the discipline of Geo-economics in India and globally. Curated and published by CUTS International, the book contains 20 essays from 21 distinguished authors,who amongst others include, noted economist Jagdish Bhagwati, two former foreign Secretaries Shyam Saran and S Jaishankar, former US Ambassador to India Robert Blackwill, Secretary General CUTS International Pradeep Mehta, Director NMML Shakti Sinha and former DG, WTO Pascal Lamy. In the current times when the world order is being rapidly reconfigured, this book is a useful resource for the government, think tanks, academia, civil society and all those interested in strategic affairs.
Is it possible for Russian energy companies to develop an effective business strategy based on the restrictions and rules of strategic documents of national scale? Today Russian Energy Strategy sets the benchmarks for business. The set of methods allows for the analysis of open sources and materials for the development of national and corporate strategies. Scenario conditions of development are one of the areas of analysis. The CGE model is used by the World Bank, IMF, OECD and the European Commission for studying economic scenarios, but it has not found applicaton in the Russian energy strategy. Other management technologies in demand by Russian companies are not used in the energy strategy either (e.g.balanced scorecard).
World experience confirms the possibility of adjusting corporate strategies for the benefit of society. Danish Energy Strategy prescribes a smooth transition to alternative energy sources and active implementation of smart energy resources. Experience of Norway in this area is also important. The third energy package of the EU defines the rules of the game in the European market influencing the business models, strategies and long-term deliveries of external counterparties.
Taking into account not only the world trends: slower growth in demand, diversifying energy structure, increasing competitiveness of renewable energy sources, increasing supply from developing countries, tightening climate norms, but also other factors (e.g. Russia being under sanctions, etc.) will allow the company to act as a partner of the state in some issues, and at the same time as an independent entity: its strategy is determined by the board of directors. Modern management technologies allow us to specify and quantify the characteristics of the national energy strategy, and to reflect the priorities in the development strategies of companies. The conditions of the state policy and the parameters of the companies' strategies will have more points of contact and reduce the risk of deviation from the declared goals. The adjustment of the restrictions and rules of the national energy strategy will reduce the risks of imbalance in the actions of society and business. Revision of the program document is possible due to organizational design and methodological support.
This edited volume examines the relationship between economic ideas, economic policies and development institutions, analysing the cases of 11 peripheral countries in Europe, Latin America and Asia across the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
It sheds light on the obstacles that have prevented the sustained economic growth of these countries and examines the origins of national and regional approaches to development. The chapters present a fascinating insight into the ideas and visions in the different locations, with the overarching categories of economic nationalism and economic liberalism and how they have influenced development outcomes.
This book will be valuable reading for advanced students and researchers of development economics, the history of economic thought and economic history.
Urban population is growing worldwide. Our societies are facing grand challenges like climate change and growing inequalities between people. There is an increasing need to develop cities that are environmentally and socially sustainable, functional and supporting well-being of their inhabitants. When striving towards these goals, transportation and mobility play a crucial role. Easy and environmentally sustainable mobility options are called for in most cities. For these to attract users, they need to be safe and pleasant, providing positive experiences and well-being in addition to efficiency in time or cost.
NECTAR conference is organized with a title “Towards Human Scale Cities – Open and Happy” to reflect the new requirements of urban transportation. This 15th NECTAR conference, organized in Helsinki 5th - 7th June 2019, provides presentations by world-class keynotes Mikael Colville-Andersen and Professor Tim Schwanen, who approach human scale mobility from the viewpoints of a designer and a researcher. More than 140 scientific presentations explore advancements in the field of transport, communication and mobility, with a particular focus on good quality mobility options for people. The focus of the conference is urban transportation and the new possibilities that open data and digital technologies provide for mobility solutions and their research. Presentations provide food for thought concerning mobility choices and quality, new mobility solutions like MaaS, and policies that are implemented to support them.
Helsinki offers an interesting environment for the 2019 NECTAR conference. It is the home of the busiest passenger harbor in Europe with a twin-city development with Tallinn across the bay, and a major air transportation hub between Europe and Asia. It is one of the fastest growing capital regions in Europe, with large densification developments taking place in old logistic centers: harbor areas of Jätkäsaari and Kalasatama and a train depot in Pasila. Public transportation is valued high by citizens, as well as politicians and planners making investment decisions for the future. First robotized buses are in operation and MaaS solutions are emerging. New bike sharing system is one of the most used in the world and has expanded to cover most of the city region. As everywhere in Europe, new forms of micromobility from electronic scooters to electric longboards are appearing on the streets making planners and police puzzled. The city has profiled itself as an open city: large amounts of open data about the region have been made available and the region of Helsinki is committed to open and transparent decision
and policy making. This supports also research in the major universities: University of Helsinki and Aalto University, the local organizers of the conference.
We anticipate that the conference days will forward our thinking on how to make cities more sustainable, functional and pleasant for people, and how to study them scientifically in a meaningful and transparent manner.
This book gathers the outcomes of several scientific events that were organized and conducted by the Institute of Scientific Communications (Volgograd, Russia) and the leading universities of the Volgograd region. The contributing authors include more than 700 scholars from various cities and regions of Russia. 124 works were selected out of 3,000 papers on the preconditions of formation, transformation, and legal provision of social institutes, topics that are in high demand in connection with a core aspect of digital modernization – the Internet of Things. The book is intended for a broad target audience, including scholars of various generations and various disciplines. These include young researchers (undergraduates and postgraduates) and recognized scholars (professors and lecturers) who study the socioeconomic and legal consequences of the emergence and dissemination of digital technologies, including the Internet of Things. In addition, the book will benefit all those who are interested in the development of the information society, information and telecommunication, and digital technologies. The content is divided into three logical parts, the first of which is devoted to the essence of the process of institutionalization and legal regulation of the information society.
The pocket data book contains main indicators characterizing S&T and innovation potential of the Russian Federation. There are the information about intellectual property, S&T output, data of international comparisons given.
The data book includes information of the Federal State Statistics Service, Federal Service for Intellectual Property, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Eurostat, UNESCO, World Intellectual Property Organisation, national statistical services of foreign countries, and results of own methodological and analytical studies of the HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge.
On 15 March 2019, the first “Connecting Eurasia Dialogue: From the Atlantic to the Pacific” was held in Brussels, at Europe’s political heart. The event was organized by the Roscongress Foundation and the Conoscere Eurasia Association with the support of the Association of European Businesses and the Belgian-Luxembourg Chamber of Commerce. Amid the current political cooldown, this was a unique gathering, enabling a high-level dialogue on trade, economic, and integration issues among stakeholders from the wider Eurasian space, including the European Union (EU), the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), and China. The focus of high-level policy makers and top business executives attended the Dialogue was on challenges and opportunities of the EU’s engagement with the EAEU, harmonization of soft infrastructure to enhance trans-Eurasian connectivity, and the EAEU’s single pharmaceutical market. This IIASA discussion paper provides a summary of the deliberations, supported by research from inside and outside the Institute.
Development of measures for management accounting, brand management and promotion is one of the main problems of processing and trading enterprises. In management accounting, interest in the formation and management of trademarks (brand) in Russia is growing every year, since well-known trademarks are becoming a prerequisite for a firm's stable position in the market, a factor in its competitiveness. We understand the brand as a subjective image in the minds of consumers, denoted by the brand, consisting of a consistent set of promises to the target consumer and creating a sustainable competitive advantage compared to non-branded products.
The purpose of the study is to research and substantiate the managerial aspects of the development and promotion of the brand. The paper presents elements of management and operational accounting for the development and promotion of the brand. At the present stage of development of competitive markets, more attention should be paid to management accounting, including methods for developing and promoting trademarks (brands). In the current conditions of commodity abundance and tougher competition, the goal of brand promotion is seen as one of the important activities in an organization that has a direct impact on the financial results of the organization.
The following research methods were used in the work: monographic method, dialectical method of knowledge, statistical and system approach, analysis, comparison, statistical descriptions of economic processes.
In the process of drying the grain in a dense layer in motion, the grain moves through the grain dryer. The movement of the grain layers is usually uneven. In addition, it is likely that the temperature and consumption of the desiccant agent will not remain the same throughout the height of the drying zone. The specific power of the microwave field in the drying zone can also alter. All these factors affect the speed and uniformity of drying of the grain layer throughout the drying zone. In the first stage, an analysis of the theoretical studies on the subject was carried out. It was determined that to date there has not been presented any work in which mathemati-cal models of heat and humidity exchange in a dense layer of grain in motion with con-sideration of the relative vertical movement of the layers. Therefore, it is necessary to develop such a mathematical model. As an initial configuration for the development of a mathematical description of the drying process, it was deemed appropriate to use the configuration of the microwave and convection zone developed by the authors. The equal probability of combination of parameters of the desiccant agent temperature, its relative humidity, the velocity and distance from the caryopsis to the waveguide was assumed. From this point, we developed a computerized microwave and convection drying model that takes into account this type of change in the parameters. The results of the grain drying simulation demonstrated the efficiency of the computer model obtained, reflecting the influence of fluctuations in grain parameters and the microwave field in the drying process. To evaluate the accuracy of the obtained model, it is necessary to carry out experimental studies.
In the present economic situation, effective management accounting of the activities of any
agricultural enterprise implies regular monitoring using a whole range of traditional and innovative
analytical and management tools. In the conditions of the modern market, the need for research of the theory and practice of management accounting and its features in relation to a specific target audience is growing. Among the diversity of agricultural organizations, the most important is to identify priorities in improving the business in order to increase its efficiency and uniqueness.
In this paper, with the help of tools, various aspects of management accounting are analyzed,
a new generalized direction of accounting is defined, a new concept of management accounting is given, the most effective and optimal management approaches are identified for effective decision making. The proposed measures can be applied not only by agricultural organizations, but also by other economic entities. The proposed system of management accounting in agriculture can serve
as a starting point for scientific research and improvement of management accounting.
The paper looks into the specifics of cross-border investments related to changes in the direction of capital flow. The growth factors regarding the export of capital have been identified from the point of view of the Neo-Keynesian theory of investment, which describes a situation when the economy of a country demonstrates a stable excess of the gross saving rate (gross saving to GDP ratio) over the gross accumulation rate (gross accumulation to GDP ratio), which can be the result of forcing exports and/or rapidly growing prices for the main export commodities. The paper presents the results of the evaluated international investment activity of the Russian Federation in 2018–2019, formed with standard components. The main indicators, characterizing financial stability and positions of the Russian banking system given the sectoral limitations, have been reported. The key trade and investment positions of the Russian Federation and the EU countries have been analyzed. Calculations have been made to demonstrate the volume of direct Russian investments in the EU countries within 2010–2017. Some peculiarities have been identified and the presence of asymmetry in the investment cooperation between the EU and the RF has been confirmed. Specific features of the Russian export of capital have been revealed. A range of factors, preconditioning a growth of flow of Russian bank capital to the countries of the EU, has been formed. The main parameters of the international investment activity of Russian banking institutions have been presented and some data have been given on the geographical distribution of foreign assets and liabilities of the Russian bank sector by groups of countries and individual (most attractive for Russian investment) countries of the world. It has been concluded that supporting European expansion of the national banking institutions could be one of the prioritized directions of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the banking sector.
digital transformation of other industries. The extant literature sparsely describes pathways of different sectors in digitalisation, considering the heterogeneous characteristics of firms and sectors. Emerging economies with important state participation represent a particular interest in this area of research. To this end, a multiple case study method was used to describe a set of determinants revealed from the literature on Russian technological development and innovation in manufacturing. Two different patterns were identified. The first one was typical for large leading firms with state participation, which have a global market presence and a substantial level of interoperability, currently turning into a service business model. Private firms that follow the second pattern focus on physical and digital infrastructure upgrading targeted at particular issues to secure connectivity across departments. The state participation does not have a decisive role in digitalisation decisions; however, it affects the participation of companies in national digital initiatives. This study is a preliminary analysis of the determinants associated with corporate digitalisation from the sectoral perspective. Since both national and corporate strategies are ongoing, it seems premature to make generalised conclusions. Instead, the paper provides useful insights for management and policy that refer to digital technology uptake by machinery-building industries.
In the last decades of the 20th century, various classes of alternative investments have become increasingly popular among investors. During this time, art as a form of alternative investment attracted attention not only from potential buyers but also from academic scholars. Unfortunately, only a few of the newly published papers contained any quantitative analysis with regard to art’s investment performance. Besides, even a smaller amount of research was devoted to the analysis of Russian art markets. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to evaluate the efficiency of investments in the artworks of contemporary Russian painters and to compare the effectiveness of these investments with the effectiveness of investments in stock, bond and real estate markets in Russia and the USA. For this research, we first conduct a hedonic regression analysis on the data available for 1950-2019 time period. After that, we build a hedonic price index for the canvases of contemporary Russian artists. According to our results, the trend of this index reiterates largely the price behavior for world contemporary art market. However, the results of our study indicate that investments in contemporary Russian art do not outperform investments in instruments of Russian and American capital and real estate markets. We arrived at these results by applying the CAPM model which demonstrated that Russian art as a form of alternative investment is not advisable for the purposes of diversification of investment portfolios. Based on our findings, contemporary Russian art in general can be considered an unattractive instrument for Russian and foreign investors.
It is assumed that a perfect balance between student academic achievement and university quality is beneficial both for students and higher education institutions (HEIs). Matching theory predicts the existence of perfect matching between the two groups in the absence of transaction costs associated with university enrollment. However, in this study we show cases of mismatch situations in Russia under the Unified State Exam (USE) – the standardized student admission mechanism. This research studies the reasons for this phenomenon for minimal transaction costs and the emergence of unequal access to HEIs. Based on data on Moscow high school graduates who entered university, the determinants of the mismatch between the quality of universities and applicant abilities are assessed. It is shown that although in most cases favorable matching results are established, the individual student achievement results themselves are subject to the influence of school and family characteristics. Thus, inequality of access can be formed at stages preceding HEI enrollment.
Digitalisation in machinery-building is expected to enhance productivity and drive the digital transformation of other industries. The extant literature sparsely describes pathways of different sectors in digitalisation, considering the heterogeneous characteristics of firms and sectors. Emerging economies with important state participation represent a particular interest in this area of research. To this end, a multiple case study method was used to describe a set of determinants revealed from the literature on Russian technological development and innovation in manufacturing. Two different patterns were identified. The first one was typical for large leading firms with state participation, which have a global market presence and a substantial level of interoperability, currently turning into a service business model. Private firms that follow the second pattern focus on physical and digital infrastructure upgrading targeted at particular issues to secure connectivity across departments. The state participation does not have a decisive role in digitalisation decisions; however, it affects the participation of companies in national digital initiatives. This study is a preliminary analysis of the determinants associated with corporate digitalisation from the sectoral perspective. Since both national and corporate strategies are ongoing, it seems premature to make generalised conclusions. Instead, the paper provides useful insights for management and policy that refer to digital technology uptake by machinery-building industries.
The paper shows relationships between characteristics of residents and places where they live. A combination of three criteria of place attractiveness (retention and attraction, conditions for natural growth, and settling) was chosen to classify places, and profiles of their beneficiaries on the theoretical level.
The results of the empirical study partially confirm developed theoretical typologies. Two methods to segment place market are equal only if expectations of population are constant. Study results allow place marketers to identify emerging shifts in the structure of beneficiaries of specific places and predict their further evolution.