Philology and Linguistics
Linguists have long classified languages according to the ways in which their intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and direct objects align with respect to case marking and/or agreement. The two main divisions are known as the (nominative–)accusative and ergative(–absolutive) alignments. Under an accusative alignment pattern, the intransitive subject (abbreviated here as S) and the transitive subject (A: for agent, or agent-like argument) are encoded the same way (nominative), while the transitive direct object (O) is encoded separately (accusative). Under an ergative alignment pattern, on the other hand, S and O have identical encoding (absolutive) while A has its own separate case (ergative); see Comrie (1978); Dixon (1979; 1994); Manning (1996); Aldridge (2008); McGregor (2009); among others. These alignments can be expressed not only through case marking but also through agreement; S and A may determine the same agreement, in contrast to O, or S and O may license the same agreement, in contrast to A.
The book comprises study materials for learning English. It aims at developing students' communication skills which are necessary for using English in every day life and professional activities. The book provides learners with extra opportunities for developing their listening, pronunciation, vocabulary and speaking skills through the use of authentic video content selected in accordance with the requirements of the ESL course.
My book examines the function and development of the cult of saints in Coptic Egypt. For this purpose I focus primarily on the material provided by the texts forming the Coptic hagiographical tradition of the early Christian martyr Philotheus of Antioch, and more specifically – the Martyrdom of St Philotheus of Antioch (Pierpont Morgan M583). This Martyrdom is a reflection of a once flourishing cult which is attested in Egypt by rich textual and material evidence. This text enjoyed great popularity not only in Egypt, but also in other countries of the Christian East, since his dossier includes texts in Coptic, Georgian, Ethiopic, and Arabic. This work examines the literary and historical background of the Martyrdom of Philotheus and similar hagiographical texts. It also explores the goals and concerns of the authors and editors of Coptic martyr passions and their intended audience. I am arguing that these texts were produced in order to perform multiple functions: to justify and promote the cult of a particular saint, as an educational tool, and as an important structural element of liturgical celebrations in honour of the saint.
The resource book is a collection of twelve lessons based on a selection of TED talks about different aspects of modern life. The selected TED talks not only enhance the learners’ English language proficiency but also develop the learners’ professional competencies and expand their outlook. All the lessons have a regular structure and include exercises for developing vocabulary, listening, reading, speaking, note-taking and writing skills. A quick test has been developed for each lesson checking the student’s assimilation of the material. Through authentic models of effective communication, students build fluency to achieve academic and personal success. The resource book can be used both for classroom activities and for independent work.
The book is devoted to qualifying parts of speech: adjective and adverb.
The book is devoted to linguistic problems of professional information exchange among specialists of various fields.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language, AINL 2018, held in St. Petersburg, Russia, in October 2018. The 19 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 56 submissions and cover a wide range of topics, including morphology and word-level semantics, sentence and discourse representations, corpus linguistics, language resources, and social interaction analysis.
"Zholkovsky’s work—vast in scope and eclectic in methodology—has long been humanizing semiotics in both the Russian and American academy, giving it a face, a sense of humor, a stake in the real worlds we live by, but never losing its structuralist bedrock. The essays collected here, which range from Pushkin to Fyodor Karamazov, Okudzhava and Sedakova, from Peter the Great’s scandals abroad to Russian literary theory and filmmaking at home, are a goldmine by leading Slavists in North America, Europe, and Russia. A huge book of brilliant nuggets, it lights up the contours of our field today while paying perfect vignette-like tribute to Alik’s long non-conformist career, as fascinating and inscrutably flexible as it was often perilous.” (By Caryl Emerson). *** “This book is a wonderful gift not only for the 'jubilee celebrant' (for AZ it is impossible to imagine this phrase without quotes), but for all of us. The variety of topics, genres and authors might seem surprising were it not for the fact that this variety reflects the character of the book’s addressee. Its content, better than any manifesto or theoretical treatise, brings us good news: that a lack of intellectual inhibition, an unrestricted field of vision, and an enthusiasm that does not cloy are all so becoming to scholarship that, in essence, has as its sole palpable subject the infinity of creative choices. I have always liked Mayakovsky’s neologism: 'Do not jubilee!' (He himself, though, was very much concerned with his own anniversaries.) A / Z is completely devoid of the sedate smoothness of octogenaric jubilees, but it has a lot of panache and a spirit of intellectual adventure, and most importantly, fun. In this, the book bears a striking resemblance to its addressee.” (By Boris Gasparov).
Scandinavian motifs, both religious and related to arts and crafts, are typically deprived of their religious content in the process of Christianization as percieved in Old Rus' literature in which myths are treated as faded histories or legends.
The Caucasus is the place with the greatest linguistic variation in Europe. The present volume explores this variation within the tense, aspect, mood, and evidentiality systems in the languages of the North-East Caucasian (or Nakh-Daghestanian) family. The papers of the volume cover the most challenging and typologically interesting features such as aspect and the complicated interaction of aspectual oppositions expressed by stem allomorphy and inflectional paradigms, grammaticalized evidentiality and mirativity, and the semantics of rare verbal categories such as the deliberative (‘May I go?’), the noncurative (‘Let him go, I don’t care’), different types of habituals (gnomic, qualitative, non-generic), and perfective tenses (aorist, perfect, resultative). The book offers an overview of these features in order to gain a broader picture of the verbal semantics covering the whole North-East Caucasian family. At the same time it provides in-depth studies of the most fascinating phenomena.
The volume presents several papers on Mehweb, a one-village language spoken in the central part of Daghestan, a republic of the Russian Federation.
Since the advent of digitization, the conceptual confusion surrounding the semantic galaxy that comprises the media and journalism universes has increased. Journalism across several media platforms provides rapidly expanding content and audience engagement that assist in enhancing the journalistic experience. Exploring Transmedia Journalism in the Digital Age provides emerging research on multimedia journalism across various platforms and formats using digital technologies. While highlighting topics, such as immersive journalism, nonfictional narratives, and design practice, this book explores the theoretical and critical approaches to journalism through the lens of various technologies and media platforms. This book is an important resource for scholars, graduate and undergraduate students, and media professionals seeking current research on media expansion and participatory journalism.
This edited collection presents a range of methods that can be used to analyse linguistic data quantitatively. A series of case studies of Russian data spanning different aspects of modern linguistics serve as the basis for a discussion of methodological and theoretical issues in linguistic data analysis. The book presents current trends in quantitative linguistics, evaluates methods and presents the advantages and disadvantages of each. The chapters contain introductions to the methods and relevant references for further reading.
The Russian language, despite being one of the most studied in the world, until recently has been little explored quantitatively. After a burst of research activity in the years 1960-1980, quantitative studies of Russian vanished. They are now reappearing in an entirely different context. Today we have large and deeply annotated corpora available for extended quantitative research, such as the Russian National Corpus, ruWac, RuTenTen, to name just a few (websites for these and other resources will be found in a special section in the References). The present volume is intended to fill the lacuna between the available data and the methods that can be applied to studying them.
Our goal is to present current trends in researching Russian quantitative linguistics, to evaluate the research methods vis-à-vis Russian data, and to show both the advantages and the disadvantages of the methods. We especially encouraged our authors to focus on evaluating statistical methods and new models of analysis. New findings concern applicability, evaluation, and the challenges that arise from using quantitative approaches to Russian data.
This book explores how artistic strategies of resistance have survived under the conservative-authoritarian regime which has been in place in Russia since 2012. It discusses the conditions under which artists work as the state spells out a new state cultural policy, aesthetics change and the state attempts to define what constitutes good taste. It examines the approaches artists are adopting to resist state oppression and to question the present system and attitudes to art. The book addresses a wide range of issues related to these themes, considers the work of individual artists and includes besides its focus on the visual arts also some discussion of contemporary theatre. The book is interdisciplinary: its authors include artists, art historians, theatre critics, historians, linguists, sociologists and political scientists from Russia, Europe and the United States.
This book aims at developing reserahc writing skills of students. The two key genres of an empirical research paper and a research proposal are used as a basis to develop researcg communication skills.
The book is intended primarily for the first year undergraduate students but can be also recommended for students of other levels and adults who would like to improve their pronunciation and review the basics of the English grammar. Its main objective is complex revision and development of the student’s knowledge of English phonetics and morphology (group of nominal parts of speech) in order to advance both receptive (listening, reading) and productive (speaking, writing) skills. The Level of English before starting the course is supposed to be not lower than A2-B1 according to the CEFR.
The book contains seven chapters, each devoted to a separate topic, and can be logically divided into two main parts: phonetics (Chapter I) and morphology (Chapters II – VII). All chapters include theoretical part and exercises that are aimed at both recognizing the studied linguistic phenomenon (on its own and within short contexts) and using it. The exercises comprise such tasks as matching words with their definitions, multiple choice, completing sentences with appropriate words, matching parts of sentences, translating, analyzing sentences and texts, creating one’s own texts. The chapters of the book can be studied in any order.
The presentation of linguistic theory is based on the classic and recent books by Russian and foreign scholars. The priority was given to Russian books as taking into consideration the background and typical problems of Russian learners of the English language. The illustrative examples and material for exercises comes from a variety of sources (fiction, encyclopedic and media resources, academic journals, monolingual English dictionaries) in order to demonstrate how the studied linguistic units function in different contexts and text genres.
This training manual is addressed to students of higher education institutions, whose level of English is B2 – C1 according to CEFR and whose course of studies requires writing and defending Research Project Proposal in English. The book is aimed at building and development of Academic skills in oral speech considered necessary for the defense of the Project Proposal of Graduate Qualification Work. Specific feature of the manual is considering new forms of communication, namely giving presentation speech in English. The texts and tasks of the manual envisages forming the skills of designing and performing academic presentations on professinal topics as well as developing soft skills, which are recognised as a significant constituent of graduates' professional competency. The training guide contains exercises for both inclass and out-of- class work, including the use of the Internet.
The study is a quantitative analysis of the use of syntactic markers of academic discourse in two kinds of corpora: expert corpora which comprise articles published in peer-reviewed journals in management and economics and learner corpora of students’ research papers in the same disciplines. The syntactic constructions selected for the analysis are taken from various guidebooks and textbooks in academic writing. They are it-clefts; pseudo-clefts; th-wh constructions; attitudinal clauses; various types of adverbial clauses; relative clauses and non-finite clauses. The paper aims at identifying the differences between student and professional writing as well as ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ disciplines in order to facilitate EAP teachers to design their courses in academic writing in the conditions of limited classroom time making them more discipline specific and relevant to learners’ needs.
Was there a distinct and coherent Soviet-bloc literature? We know it was because it is no more. This paper proposes to explore it through the transnational literary field within which it circulated, a regional rival to Pascale Casanova's more famous World Republic of Letters. After identifying the borders, structures, and principles of operation that Soviet cultural bureaucracies designed for this People's Republic of Letters in the late-Stalin period, we will examine how deftly post-Stalin-era writers and readers navigated it in the decades that followed. In particular, the sheer unevenness of censorship practices across Eastern Europe allowed Soviet readers to access material that for political, or puritanical, or genre reasons was not available in Soviet literature. Such a revisionist approach to transnational print culture not only explains some of the very unusual Soviet-bloc bestsellers among Russian audiences but also highlights the sheer agency of those audiences.
Phonemes play a central role in traditional theories as units of speech perception and access codes to lexical representations. Phonemes have two essential properties: they are ‘segment-sized’ (the size of a consonant or vowel) and abstract (a single phoneme may be have different acoustic realisations). Nevertheless, there is a long history of challenging the phoneme hypothesis, with some theorists arguing for differently sized phonological units (e.g. features or syllables) and others rejecting abstract codes in favour of representations that encode detailed acoustic properties of the stimulus. The phoneme hypothesis is the minority view today. We defend the phoneme hypothesis in two complementary ways. First, we show that rejection of phonemes is based on a flawed interpretation of empirical findings. For example, it is commonly argued that the failure to find acoustic invariances for phonemes rules out phonemes. However, the lack of invariance is only a problem on the assumption that speech perception is a bottom-up process. If learned sublexical codes are modified by top-down constraints (which they are), then this argument loses all force. Second, we provide strong positive evidence for phonemes on the basis of linguistic data. Almost all findings that are taken (incorrectly) as evidence against phonemes are based on psycholinguistic studies of single words. However, phonemes were first introduced in linguistics, and the best evidence for phonemes comes from linguistic analyses of complex word forms and sentences. In short, the rejection of phonemes is based on a false analysis and a too-narrow consideration of the relevant data.
The current research is devoted to the comparative and contrastive analysis of Donald Trump’s victory and inaugural speeches. Its objective is to identify their similarities and differences from the functional and linguistic points of view. The research consists of several stages. First, the two genres of discourse in question are defined. Then, an overview of their functions is provided. Next, the linguistic means of performing them are analyzed. The results of the research indicate that, due to their main goals, the genres in question express certain functions, which can be verbally expressed in various ways: in Trump’s victory speech the inspirative function comes to the fore, while in his inaugural address the integrative and the performative functions dominate the other ones. Furthermore, in each case linguistic peculiarities correlate with the functions: in the victory speech the focus is on the 'greatness' of everything and everyone, whereas in the inaugural speech words connected with patriotism prevail, which is expressed mostly by means of personal pronouns. The results of the current research may function as a basis for further analysis of the genre of the victory speech as it has not received enough scholarly attention yet and of the peculiarities of Donald Trump’s political discourse.
Since the late 1980s, we witnessed vigorous attempts to bury the Soviet intelligentsia along with Soviet literature. Some efforts along these lines were truly inspired (Anninsky, 1992Anninsky, L. (1992). The suppression of the intelligentsia. Will it persist till 2000? [Vytesnenia intelligentsia. Will it persists till 2000?]. Ogonek, № 29-30, pp. 28–29. [Google Scholar]; Yampolsky, 1991Yampolsky, M. (1991). Rape by confession [Iznasilovanny pokaianiem]. Literaturnoe obozrenie, 8, 89–96. [Google Scholar]). And yet, forecasts about the imminent demise of Russian intelligentsia have proved premature. Plenty of people still identify themselves with this vaunted group. Some go out of their way to sell their services to the official authorities, to Vladimir Putin – the surprising monarch that emerged after breakup of the Soviet Union. Others, still in self-criticism mode, agitate against the reigning powers and official establishment or sport a decidedly apolitical attitude. Then there are those who enjoy a cozy relationship with the establishment and milk it to their advantage.
Structurally, the situation uncannily resembles the one that prevailed in the Soviet era. The notion that the intelligenty will transform themselves into pragmatic intellectuals – a common assumption in the 1990s – didn’t pan out (Kordonsky, 1994Kordonsky, S. (1994). Intelligentsia as a national elite[Intelligentsia v roli nationalnoi elity]. Predely vlasti, 1, 134–152). The intelligentsia is still very much with us, even though it has adapted to the circumstances.
We utilized the event-related potential (ERP) technique to study neural activity associated with different levels of working memory (WM) load during simultaneous interpretation (SI) of continuous prose. The amplitude of N1 and P1 components elicited by task-irrelevant tone probes was significantly modulated as a function of WM load but not the direction of interpretation. Furthermore, the latency of the P1 increased significantly with WM load. The WM load effect on N1 latency, however, did not reach significance. Larger negativity under lower WM loads suggests that more attention is available to process the source message, providing the first electrophysiological evidence in support of the Efforts Model of SI. Relationships between the direction of interpretation and median WM load are also discussed.
This paper describes the range of patterns used for the expression of ‘other’ in East Caucasian (Nakh-Daghestanian) languages, an indigenous language family of the Eastern Caucasus mainly spoken in the Republics of Daghestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia (Russian Federation), as well as in northern regions of Azerbaijan and eastern parts of Georgia.
This paper reports the results of the study of the Maltese language and the extent of Arabic influence on the Maltese Language. The factors underlying the vitality of the Arabic source-code in modern Maltese are analyzed.
Novelty of the research consists in using the language material as evidence that the period of stay of the Arabs in Malta was substantially longer and the degree and nature of influence of the Arab civilization on the development of the language and culture of population of Malta were more decisive than it is commonly believed. To use the language material as an argument is important considering the fact that written documents of the period are almost nonexistent, and facts of material culture are scarce. The study of the evolution of Maltese from a dialect of Arabic to the state language of Malta (non-Arabic Catholic country) is a contribution to development of the typology of Arabic dialects and helps to understand the possible path of their development.