Philology and Linguistics
The book is devoted to qualifying parts of speech: adjective and adverb.
The book is devoted to linguistic problems of professional information exchange among specialists of various fields.
"Zholkovsky’s work—vast in scope and eclectic in methodology—has long been humanizing semiotics in both the Russian and American academy, giving it a face, a sense of humor, a stake in the real worlds we live by, but never losing its structuralist bedrock. The essays collected here, which range from Pushkin to Fyodor Karamazov, Okudzhava and Sedakova, from Peter the Great’s scandals abroad to Russian literary theory and filmmaking at home, are a goldmine by leading Slavists in North America, Europe, and Russia. A huge book of brilliant nuggets, it lights up the contours of our field today while paying perfect vignette-like tribute to Alik’s long non-conformist career, as fascinating and inscrutably flexible as it was often perilous.” (By Caryl Emerson). *** “This book is a wonderful gift not only for the 'jubilee celebrant' (for AZ it is impossible to imagine this phrase without quotes), but for all of us. The variety of topics, genres and authors might seem surprising were it not for the fact that this variety reflects the character of the book’s addressee. Its content, better than any manifesto or theoretical treatise, brings us good news: that a lack of intellectual inhibition, an unrestricted field of vision, and an enthusiasm that does not cloy are all so becoming to scholarship that, in essence, has as its sole palpable subject the infinity of creative choices. I have always liked Mayakovsky’s neologism: 'Do not jubilee!' (He himself, though, was very much concerned with his own anniversaries.) A / Z is completely devoid of the sedate smoothness of octogenaric jubilees, but it has a lot of panache and a spirit of intellectual adventure, and most importantly, fun. In this, the book bears a striking resemblance to its addressee.” (By Boris Gasparov).
Scandinavian motifs, both religious and related to arts and crafts, are typically deprived of their religious content in the process of Christianization as percieved in Old Rus' literature in which myths are treated as faded histories or legends.
The Caucasus is the place with the greatest linguistic variation in Europe. The present volume explores this variation within the tense, aspect, mood, and evidentiality systems in the languages of the North-East Caucasian (or Nakh-Daghestanian) family. The papers of the volume cover the most challenging and typologically interesting features such as aspect and the complicated interaction of aspectual oppositions expressed by stem allomorphy and inflectional paradigms, grammaticalized evidentiality and mirativity, and the semantics of rare verbal categories such as the deliberative (‘May I go?’), the noncurative (‘Let him go, I don’t care’), different types of habituals (gnomic, qualitative, non-generic), and perfective tenses (aorist, perfect, resultative). The book offers an overview of these features in order to gain a broader picture of the verbal semantics covering the whole North-East Caucasian family. At the same time it provides in-depth studies of the most fascinating phenomena.
The volume presents several papers on Mehweb, a one-village language spoken in the central part of Daghestan, a republic of the Russian Federation.
Since the advent of digitization, the conceptual confusion surrounding the semantic galaxy that comprises the media and journalism universes has increased. Journalism across several media platforms provides rapidly expanding content and audience engagement that assist in enhancing the journalistic experience. Exploring Transmedia Journalism in the Digital Age provides emerging research on multimedia journalism across various platforms and formats using digital technologies. While highlighting topics, such as immersive journalism, nonfictional narratives, and design practice, this book explores the theoretical and critical approaches to journalism through the lens of various technologies and media platforms. This book is an important resource for scholars, graduate and undergraduate students, and media professionals seeking current research on media expansion and participatory journalism.
This edited collection presents a range of methods that can be used to analyse linguistic data quantitatively. A series of case studies of Russian data spanning different aspects of modern linguistics serve as the basis for a discussion of methodological and theoretical issues in linguistic data analysis. The book presents current trends in quantitative linguistics, evaluates methods and presents the advantages and disadvantages of each. The chapters contain introductions to the methods and relevant references for further reading.
The Russian language, despite being one of the most studied in the world, until recently has been little explored quantitatively. After a burst of research activity in the years 1960-1980, quantitative studies of Russian vanished. They are now reappearing in an entirely different context. Today we have large and deeply annotated corpora available for extended quantitative research, such as the Russian National Corpus, ruWac, RuTenTen, to name just a few (websites for these and other resources will be found in a special section in the References). The present volume is intended to fill the lacuna between the available data and the methods that can be applied to studying them.
Our goal is to present current trends in researching Russian quantitative linguistics, to evaluate the research methods vis-à-vis Russian data, and to show both the advantages and the disadvantages of the methods. We especially encouraged our authors to focus on evaluating statistical methods and new models of analysis. New findings concern applicability, evaluation, and the challenges that arise from using quantitative approaches to Russian data.
This book explores how artistic strategies of resistance have survived under the conservative-authoritarian regime which has been in place in Russia since 2012. It discusses the conditions under which artists work as the state spells out a new state cultural policy, aesthetics change and the state attempts to define what constitutes good taste. It examines the approaches artists are adopting to resist state oppression and to question the present system and attitudes to art. The book addresses a wide range of issues related to these themes, considers the work of individual artists and includes besides its focus on the visual arts also some discussion of contemporary theatre. The book is interdisciplinary: its authors include artists, art historians, theatre critics, historians, linguists, sociologists and political scientists from Russia, Europe and the United States.
This book aims at developing reserahc writing skills of students. The two key genres of an empirical research paper and a research proposal are used as a basis to develop researcg communication skills.
The book is intended primarily for the first year undergraduate students but can be also recommended for students of other levels and adults who would like to improve their pronunciation and review the basics of the English grammar. Its main objective is complex revision and development of the student’s knowledge of English phonetics and morphology (group of nominal parts of speech) in order to advance both receptive (listening, reading) and productive (speaking, writing) skills. The Level of English before starting the course is supposed to be not lower than A2-B1 according to the CEFR.
The book contains seven chapters, each devoted to a separate topic, and can be logically divided into two main parts: phonetics (Chapter I) and morphology (Chapters II – VII). All chapters include theoretical part and exercises that are aimed at both recognizing the studied linguistic phenomenon (on its own and within short contexts) and using it. The exercises comprise such tasks as matching words with their definitions, multiple choice, completing sentences with appropriate words, matching parts of sentences, translating, analyzing sentences and texts, creating one’s own texts. The chapters of the book can be studied in any order.
The presentation of linguistic theory is based on the classic and recent books by Russian and foreign scholars. The priority was given to Russian books as taking into consideration the background and typical problems of Russian learners of the English language. The illustrative examples and material for exercises comes from a variety of sources (fiction, encyclopedic and media resources, academic journals, monolingual English dictionaries) in order to demonstrate how the studied linguistic units function in different contexts and text genres.
This training manual is addressed to students of higher education institutions, whose level of English is B2 – C1 according to CEFR and whose course of studies requires writing and defending Research Project Proposal in English. The book is aimed at building and development of Academic skills in oral speech considered necessary for the defense of the Project Proposal of Graduate Qualification Work. Specific feature of the manual is considering new forms of communication, namely giving presentation speech in English. The texts and tasks of the manual envisages forming the skills of designing and performing academic presentations on professinal topics as well as developing soft skills, which are recognised as a significant constituent of graduates' professional competency. The training guide contains exercises for both inclass and out-of- class work, including the use of the Internet.
The study guide is intended to develop EFL lexical and communicative competences through authentic English texts provided with a follow-up range of exercises and activities. The book serves a purpose of concentrating the focus of teachers and students on the vocabulary of monetary policy and financial stability.
The book prepared for the purposes of The 2nd World Congress on Logic and Religion, organised by the Institute of Philosophy of the University of Warsaw.
The book contains the final version of the abstracts submitted by majority of speakers.
Studies in Ethiopian Languages, Literature, and History. Festschrift for Getatchew Haile Presented by his Friends and Colleagues
Lemmatisation, which is one of the most important stages of text preprocessing, consists in grouping the inflected forms of a word together so they can be analysed as a single item. This task is often considered solved for most modern languages irregardless of their morphological type, but the situation is dramatically different for ancient languages. Rich inflectional system and high level of orthographic variation common to these languages together with lack of resources make lemmatising historical data a challenging task. It becomes more and more important as manuscripts are being extensively digitized now, but still remains poorly covered in literature. In this work, I compare a rule-based and a neural network based approach to lemmatisation in case of Early Irish data.
A corpus study of polysemy and collocability of Goidelic words for 'heavy' and 'light'
The Aphasia Rapid Test (ART; Azuar et al., 2013) is a bedside test allowing to rate aphasia severity in the acute stroke period. This test is developed as a 26-point scale estimating the severity of both speech comprehension and production less than in 5 minutes. Previously, ART was used in English and French clinical practice (Azuar et al., 2013). In Russian, there has been no analogous bedside screening scale for acute hospital units. Tests which were used before (Wasserman et al., 1987; Tsvetkova et al., 1981) are detailed, but time-consuming and effortful for patients in the first days post-stroke. ART is a reliable measure allowing to identify a language and speech disorders (aphasia, dysarthria or apraxia).
Older adults demonstrate a slower speed of linguistic processing, including sentence processing. In non-linguistic cognitive domains such as memory, research suggests that age- related slowing of processing speed may be a strategy adopted in order to avoid potential error and/or to spare “cognitive resources". So far, very few studies have tested whether older adults’ slower processing speed in the linguistic domain has a strategic nature as well. To fill this gap, we tested whether older adults can maintain language processing accuracy when a faster processing speed is enforced externally. Specifically, we compared sentence comprehension accuracy in younger and older adults when sentences were presented at the participant’s median self-paced reading speed versus twice as fast. We hypothesized that an external speed increase will cause a smaller accuracy decline in older than younger adults because older adults tend to adopt self-paced processing speeds “further away” from their performance limits. The hypothesis was not confirmed: the decline in accuracy due to faster presentation did not differ by age group. Thus, we found no evidence for strategic nature of age-related slowing of sentence processing. Based on our experimental design, we suggest that the age-related slowing of sentence processing is caused not only by motor slowdown, but also by a slowdown in cognitive processing.
The so-called “Museum” Slavonic translation of the Song of Songs contains a specific recension enrooted in Jewish Second Temple traditions. It becomes more plausible that the Slavonic translation has been produced in the earliest period of Slavic writing directly from Syriac rather than from Hebrew, as it was proposed earlier.
The poetry of Mikhail Lomonosov and Aleksandr Sumarokov played a decisive role in the establishment of Russian syllabo-tonic versification. Lomonosov’s early iambs show a noticeable foreign influence, whereas the prosodic structure of Sumarokov’s poems was formed in a fundamentally different way from the very start. The research presented in this article provides a new understanding of the sources of the rhythm of Sumarokov’s iambic verses, which represent a distinctive vector in the development of Russian verse. This vector displays significant differences from the principles of continental, West European syllabo-tonic poetry; an attempt at mastering whose principles can be observed in the early Lomonosov.
Currently, a distributed bilateral network of frontal-parietal areas is regarded as the neural substrate of working memory (WM), with the verbal WM network being more left-lateralized. This conclusion is based primarily on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data that provides correlational evidence for brain regions involved in a task. However, fMRI cannot differentiate the areas that are fundamentally required for performing a task. These data can only come from brain-injured individuals who fail the task after the loss of specific brain areas. In addition to the lack of complimentary data, is the issue of the variety in the WM tasks used to assess verbal WM. When different tasks are assumed to measure the same behavior, this may mask the contributions of different brain regions. Here, we investigated the neural substrate of WM by using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) in 49 individuals with stroke-induced left hemisphere brain injuries. These participants completed two different verbal WM tasks: complex listening span and a word 2-back task. Behavioral results indicated that the two tasks were only slightly related, while the VLSM analysis revealed different critical regions associated with each task. Specifically, significant detriments in performance on the complex span task were found with lesions in the inferior frontal gyrus, while for the 2-back task, significant deficits were seen after injury to the superior and middle temporal gyri. Thus, the two tasks depend on the structural integrity of different, non-overlapping frontal and temporal brain regions, suggesting distinct neural and cognitive mechanisms triggered by the two tasks: rehearsal and cue-dependent selection in the complex span task, versus updating/auditory recognition in the 2-back task. These findings call into question the common practice of using these two tasks interchangeably in verbal WM research and undermine the legitimacy of aggregating data from studies with different WM tasks. Thus, the present study points out the importance of lesion studies in complementing functional neuroimaging findings and highlights the need to consider task demands in neuroimaging and neuropsychological investigations of WM.
At present, due to significant attention to communicative competencies of University graduates, the assessment of an adequate level of their foreign language proficiency becomes one of the priority tasks of University education. The classical forms of assessment activities are not able to satisfy the need to identify the degree of communicative competence development. The solution of the problem of optimization of forms and methods of assessment is being conducted today in different directions by Russian and foreign researchers of second language teaching methods.
The article focuses on the conditions of carrying out of communicative competence assessment that ensure the improvement of the quality of the assessment at Universities. The authors propose some practical solutions for improvement of assessment procedures among University students.
The article is devoted to the theoretical aspects of Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP). The author proceeds from the assumption that the interaction of people with their environment can be understood as receiving and decoding certain information. Certain types of information can be stored and be transferred only with the help of specially organized systems – languages, which are specially adapted to the given type of modelling and communication. Such a type of occupational verbal communicative system is identified as language for specific purposes. The article presents a survey of the corresponding scholarly literature, which reveals the views, opinions and approaches to the problems of professional communication. The author gives evidence that LSP is not fundamentally different from LGP in terms of linguistic usage but differs rather in terms of particular modes of language that are common in different professional settings. LSP is defined as a conventionalized semiotic system based on a natural language and characterized by a cognitive function, which indicates the development of civilization and serves as an instrument of professional work and training. Particular emphasis in the article is laid on English for Medical Studies (EMS). Subjected to analysis is the vocabulary of that professional domain.