The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below.
The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.
It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
In the paper, we propose a model describing a change of charge state of MIS structures and sensors based on them being under influence of both a radiation ionization and high-field injection of electrons from the semiconductor. The model proposed takes into account the interaction of injected electrons with holes generated by the radiation and high-field ionization and captured by traps in the SiO2 film at the interface with the semiconductor. Besides, the model takes into consideration the generation of the surface states at annihilation of a fraction of holes during their interaction with injected electrons. We demonstrate that MIS sensor, being under high-field injection of electrons into the dielectric film by constant current, can be utilized to control intensity of radiation by determining the current of radiation ionization using time dependence of voltage across the sensor using the model proposed. We have ascertained that in case the MIS sensor being under high-field injection of electrons, a significant raising of the dose sensitivity of MIS sensors of the absorbed dose has been possible. However, at that working life and dose range of MIS sensors could be significantly smaller.
In the last 50 years, the biosphere, upon which humanity depends, has been altered to an unparalleled degree. The current economic model relying on fossil resources and addicted to “growth at all costs” is putting at risk not only life on our planet, but also the world’s economy. The need to react to the unprecedented COVID-19 crisis is a unique opportunity to transition towards a sustainable wellbeing economy centered around people and nature. After all, deforestation, biodiversity loss and landscape fragmentation have been identified as key processes enabling direct transmission of zoonotic infectious diseases. Likewise, a changing climate has profound implications for human health. Putting forward a new economic model requires transformative policies, purposeful innovation, access to finance, risk-taking capacity as well as new and sustainable business models and markets. But above all we need to address the past failure of our economy to value nature, because our health and wellbeing fundamentally depends on it. A circular bioeconomy offers a conceptual framework for using renewable natural capital to holistically transform and manage our land, food, health and industrial systems with the goal of achieving sustainable wellbeing in harmony with nature. Within the framework of the Sustainable Markets Initiative, under the leadership of His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales, a 10-Point Action Plan to create a circular bioeconomy is proposed below. The Action Plan is a response to The Prince of Wales’ call to invest in nature as the true engine for our economy. The Action Plan, guided by new scientific insights and breakthrough technologies, is articulated around six transformative action points further discussed below and four enabling action points, which mutually reinforce each other.
A model of the electric field enhanced thermal (thermo-field) emission of electrons from the metal cathode substrate into a thin insulating film on its surface is developed. A system of equations for the cathode surface temperature in the arc discharge and the electric field strength in the film, providing the required discharge current density, is formulated. It is shown that existence of the insulating film can result in a considerable reduction of the cathode temperature in the discharge due to lower potential barrier height at the metal-insulator boundary than at the metal-discharge boundary in case of the cathode without the film. It is found that due to an enhancement of the thermal emission of electrons into the film by the electric field generated in it, an additional decrease in the cathode temperature by about 100 K takes place.
Based on the obtained experimental data, a model is developed for the processes of a variation in the charge state of MIS (metal–insulator–semiconductor) structures under the concurrent influence of high-field tunneling electron injection and radiation. The model takes into account the interaction between injected electrons and charges appearing in the dielectric film due to radiation and high-field ionization. It is shown that some holes may be annihilated during the interaction between injected electrons and holes trapped in a SiO2 film, thus leading to the formation of surface states at the interface with silicon. The effect of the electric-field intensity and injection current density on the generation and annihilation of positive charge and the formation of surface states under radiation is studied. The effect of charge processes occurring in the insulator film of a MIS structure under the concurrent action of radiation and high-field electron injection on a change in the threshold voltage of MIS devices and radiation sensors based on them is considered.
NaCl is one of the simplest compounds and was thought to be well-understood, and yet, unexpected complexities related to it were uncovered at high pressure and in low-dimensional states. Here, exotic hexagonal NaCl thin films on the (110) diamond surface were crystallized in the experiment following a theoretical prediction based on ab initio evolutionary algorithm USPEX. State-of-the-art calculations and experiments showed the existence of a hexagonal NaCl thin film, which is due to the strong chemical interaction of the NaCl film with the diamond substrate.
The paper suggests a design of radiation sensors based on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures and p-channel radiation sensitive field eect transistors (RADFET) which are capable to function under conditions of high-field tunnel injection of electrons into the dielectric. We demonstrate that under these conditions, the dose sensitivity of the sensor can be significantly raised, and, besides, the intensity of radiation can be monitored in situ on the basis of determining the ionization current arising in the dielectric film. The paper proposes the model allowing to make a quantitative analysis of charge eects taking place in the radiation MOS sensors under concurrent influence of ionization radiation and high-field tunnel injection of electrons. Use of the model allows to properly interpret results of the radiation control. In order to test the designed sensors experimentally, we have utilized -rays, -particle radiation, and proton beams. We have acquired experimental results verifying the enhancement of function capabilities of the radiation MOS sensors when these have been under high-field injection of electrons into the dielectric.
The article presents the possibility of obtaining polymer composite materials based on thermoplastic polyimide and tungsten oxide (WO3) modified with a hydrophobic silicone fluid. Data on surface microscopy, Vickers microhardness, density, and thermal stability of composites with different tungsten oxide contents are presented. As a result of modifying tungsten oxide, its surface becomes hydrophobic, and the contact angle increases from 31° to 101°. The microstructure of the surface of composites has a fine-grained structure without microcracks and chips. The lowest density material has no filler. With increasing filler content, the density increases. When the content of the filler is 80 wt %, the density is 4.35 g/cm3. The optimum content of tungsten oxide filler is 60 wt % as measured by the surface microhardness. The work shows that the introduction of the proposed filler significantly increases the heat resistance of polyimide. Pure polyimide is stable up to 425°С, and at a temperature of 680°С, its full thermal decomposition takes place. With increasing content of modified tungsten oxide in the composite, the rate of mass loss decreases. In the composite containing 60 wt % filler at 680°C, the mass loss is 38%.
Hybrid membranes were prepared by incorporating silica with propyl-imidazoline groups in polybenzimidazoles (phthalide-containing PBI or PBI based on 2,6- or 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acids). The influence effects of the silica precursor hydrolysis conditions on the conductivity of the hybrid membranes are studied. Ionic conductivity, water uptake, phosphoric acid doping, and gas permeability of the obtained materials were found to depend on the preparation method and the silica loading. The materials with 10 wt% of functionalized silica present the highest conductivity. A decrease of hydrogen permeability is observed for low silica loadings.
The structure–phase changes that are caused in the surface layers of ferritic–martensitic Eurofer 97 and 10Cr9WV steel samples by the action of pulsed powerful fluxes of deuterium plasma and deuterium ions, which are generated in a plasma focus (PF) setup, are studied. Before tests, the steels were subjected to standard heat treatment (normalizing, tempering), and the 10Cr9WV steel samples were additionally annealed at 600°C for 600 h to determine the stability of the structure and properties at the temperatures that are close to the operating temperatures. During irradiation, the power densities of plasma (qpl = 107–1010 W/cm2) and ion (qi = 109–1012 W/cm2) fluxes and the number of plasma beam pulses (5–12 at a pulse duration of ~100 ns) are varied. The irradiation of the Eurofer 97 steel at qpl = 108–1010 W/cm2 in the PF setup is shown to cause melting and ultrafast solidification of the surface layer with the subsequent formation of a fine cellular structure with a cell size of 100–150 nm in it. The surface film formed on the 10Cr9WV steel samples during preliminary long-term annealing is found to begin to fail at qpl = 108 W/cm2; this film is fully removed at qpl = 1010 W/cm2. This process is accompanied by the segregation of particles 1–3 μm in size, which are enriched in manganese, chromium, and oxygen. After the surface film is removed, irradiation promotes the removal of manganese from the surface layers, and manganese is also removed from the Eurofer 97 steel, which has no surface film in the initial state. The plasma beam treatment of the Eurofer 97 steel in the PF working chamber at qpl = 108 W/cm2 is found to cause the formation of retained austenite in its structure, and the content of retained austenite in the 10Cr9WV steel subjected to similar treatment is lower than in the Eurofer 97 steel by a factor of 20 because of the presence of a film on its surface. The irradiation of the 10Cr9WV steel at a higher power density (qpl = 1010 W/cm2), when the surface film is removed, equalizes the contents of retained austenite in the steels under study.