The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below.
The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.
It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
The kinetics of growth of a nanosized germanium film deposited by magnetron sputtering on the Si(001) surface is studied using a developed experimental X-ray reflectometry technique distinguished by the joint recording of specularly reflected and diffusely scattered radiation. By using this technique, it is possible to perform in situ both the analysis of the morphology of the growing film and the control of its thickness with an accuracy to 1 nm. Dependences of the intensity of specular reflection, diffuse scattering, rate of growth, and mean square roughness and density of the film on the deposition time are obtained. According to the results of the measurement of specularly reflected radiation, the film roughness increases with time according to a power law. However, at a thickness of the film of 4 nm, a clearly defined maximum of diffuse scattering is observed, the angular position of which corresponds to the critical angle of total external reflection of germanium of 0.31°. This pattern of distribution of scattered radiation is explained by the manifestation of the Yoneda effect that consists in the anomalous X-ray scattering, the maximum of which corresponds to the critical angle θC of total external reflection from the film. It is established experimentally that, at the initial stage of growth, the film is formed by the Volmer–Weber mechanism. It is found using in situ X-ray reflectometry that the formation of a continuous layer of a germanium film occurs at its thickness of 7 nm; the subsequent growth of the film proceeds according to the power law σf ~ tβ, where β = 0.23.
The aim of this work was a comparative study of the wear resistance of a sample of an aluminum alloy (EN AW-2024, an aluminum alloy of the Al-Cu-Mg system) modified with ultrafine particles of minerals using the sclerometry method, which makes it possible to measure the physicomechanical properties of the material at the microscale, as well as determining some tribological parameters (hardness and elastic modulus) of a duralumin sample with a mineral coating. Wear resistance was measured using a NanoScan-4D scanning hardness tester using the multi-cycle friction method using a sapphire sphere with control of the pressing force and the deepening of the tip into the sample. The use of such a measurement system is especially important when testing thin modified layers, when the layer thickness is comparable with the surface roughness parameters and the influence of the substrate is excluded. The measurement results showed that the wear resistance of the surface of an aluminum alloy sample modified with ultrafine mineral particles increased by more than 12 times compared to the wear resistance of an aluminum alloy surface without modification.
In the paper the content of individual elements (Fe, Co, Zr, Ca and F) contained in nanocomposites FeCoZr ferromagnetic alloy in the CaF2 transparent ceramics dielectric matrix, depending on the content of the metal phase x was determined by the X-ray diffusion microanalysis (EDX) method. The nanocomposites were made by sputtering by argon ions. Investigations of changes in the chemical composition of nanocomposites under the influence of high-temperature treatments were carried out using the thermogravimetry method in the temperature range from 25 °C to 1000 °C with a temperature increase rate of 10 °C/min. On the basis of the research, a model of changes of the structural-phase state of nanogranular layers of ferromagnetic alloy Fe45Co45Zr10 in the transparent ceramics CaF2 matrix occurring under the influence of high-temperature treatments was proposed.
A model of the thermo-field electron emission from the metal cathode with a thin insulating surface film at temperatures of 200–400 K is developed. An expression for the film emission efficiency in the gas discharge is obtained. The efficiency is equal to the fraction of electrons emitted into the film from the metal substrate, which enter the discharge volume and increase the effective secondary-electron emission yield of the cathode. It is shown that the thermo-field mechanism of electron emission influences noticeably the ignition voltage of the low-current discharge with such cathode at rather low temperatures exceeding the room temperature by less than 100 K.
The damage and structural state of the surface layer of Al–Li–Mg samples composed of Al–5% Mg–2% Li (wt %) under pulsed action of power streams of high-temperature deuterium plasma and highenergy deuterium ions in the Plasma Focus (PF) device have been investigated. The radiation power density was q ~ 106 W/cm2; the pulse duration was 50–100 ns. Pulsed thermal heating and rapid cooling is established to lead to the melting and solidification of a thin surface layer of the alloy for several tens of nanoseconds. At the same time, in the superheated surface layer of the alloy, microcavities of a spherical shape are formed which is associated with intense evaporation of lithium into micropores within the heated layer. Thermal stresses caused by abrupt heating, melting, and cooling of a thin surface layer of metal result in formation of microcracks in the near-surface zone of the samples. The evaporation by the power electron beam of the elements of the anode material of the PF device (copper and tungsten) and their subsequent deposition onto the irradiated surface of the investigated samples in the form of droplets of submicron size are noted. It is shown that the thermal and radiationstimulated processes generated in the alloy under the action of pulsed energy fluxes in the implemented irradiation regime lead to the redistribution of elements in the surface layer of the aluminum solution, contributing to an increase in magnesium content and the formation of magnesium oxide on the surface.
The mixture of argon and mercury vapor with temperature-dependent composition is used as the background gas in different types of gas discharge illuminating lamps. The aim of this work was to develop a model of the low-current discharge in an argon-mercury mixture at presence of a thin insulating film on the cathode and to investigate the influence of film on the discharge ignition voltage at low ambient temperatures. When discharge modeling, we used the obtained earlier expression which describes dependence of the mixture ionization coefficient on temperature. When there was a thin insulating film on the cathode the model took into account that positive charges are accumulated on its surface during the discharge. They generate an electric field in the film sufficient for the field emission of electrons from the metal substrate of the electrode into the insulator and some of them can overcome the potential barrier at the film outer boundary and go out in the discharge volume improving emission characteristics of the cathode. Calculations showed that at a temperature decrease the electric field strengthes in the discharge gap and the voltage in it are increased due to reduction of the saturated mercury vapor density in the mixture followed by the decrease of its ionization coefficient. Existence of a thin insulating film on the cathode surface results in an increase of the cathode effective secondary electron emission yield which compensates the reduction of the mixture ionization coefficient value. The results of discharge characteristics modeling demonstrate that in case of the cathode with an insulating film the discharge ignition becomes possible at a lower inter-electrode voltage. This ensures outdoor mercury lamp turning on at a reduced supply voltage and increases its reliability under low ambient temperatures.
We study the effect of periodic, spatially uniform temperature variation on mechanical properties and structural relaxation of amorphous alloys using molecular dynamics simulations. The disordered material is modeled via a non-additive binary mixture, which is annealed from the liquid to the glassy state with various cooling rates and then either aged at constant temperature or subjected to thermal treatment. We found that in comparison to aged samples, thermal cycling with respect to a reference temperature of approximately half the glass transition temperature leads to more relaxed states with lower levels of potential energy. The largest energy decrease was observed for rapidly quenched glasses cycled with the thermal amplitude slightly smaller than the reference temperature. Following the thermal treatment, the mechanical properties were probed via uniaxial tensile strain at the reference temperature and constant pressure. The numerical results indicate an inverse correlation between the levels of potential energy and values of the elastic modulus and yield stress as a function of the thermal amplitude.
The work investigates some tribological parameters of the surfaces of friction pairs made of steel, with mineral layers. A comparative study of the friction coefficient of 18CrNiMo7-6 steel specimens with and without a mineral coating is performed. The lowest friction coefficient value was achieved for samples with mineral coating, without HFC hard surfacing before creating a mineral layer, and it was approximately 15% lower in comparison with the samples with HFC hard surfacing, but without mineral coating. The friction coefficient in the temperature range of 30…140 0С, with constant displacement speed of samples with mineral coatings is practically unchanged for every sample type, the variation range does not exceed 0.02, as contrasted with the friction coefficient of the samples with hard surfacing, but without mineral coating. The value of the coefficient of volumetric wear of an aluminum oxide toroid during rotation with disks with some types of mineral coatings was at the level of detection limit (less than 1.2x10-9 mm3/Nm), which is significantly less than the coefficient of volume wear of a toroid during rotation with disks without coating (4-7)х10-8 mm3/Nm.
Single crystal of TlCl was doped with NIR photoluminescent univalent bismuth cations by prolonged immersion in liquid bismuth metal. The ion exchange Tl+ + Bi0 ↔ Tl0 + Bi+ at the crystal surface with subsequent Bi+ migration to the bulk are expected to drive the doping process. Contrary with Bi‐doped TlCl crystals, grown by Bridgman method, the ion exchange does not produce the additional nonluminescent bismuth‐containing centers. The investigation of photoluminescence emission and excitation spectra lead to the conclusion, that Bi+ is the main NIR emissive center in Bi‐doped TlCl.