The results of the implementation of promising areas of construction of low-rise buildings are presented. The problems of improving the environmental safety and financial stability of agricultural construction through the introduction of effective systems, ensuring energy saving, creating comfortable conditions in the premises are considered. It is noted that in recent years, special attention has been paid to the environmental safety of the materials used and to reducing the negative environmental impact of systems using these materials. The rationale is given that the thermal resistance of the system should be based not only on the use of materials with low thermal conductivity, but also should offer a reasonable minimization of the joints between the products included in the insulation shells, as well as between the materials and the frame. In constructions with the use of polyurethane foam, a seamless insulation shell is formed, which has a high thermal stability. The low permeability of steam and wind and the moisture conductivity of polyurethane foam allows you to do without an additional steam barrier and wind protection, which improves the performance of the frame and its durability.
We consider a domed house-shed that combines a residential area and greenhouses. The planning solution of a multi-purpose domed house involves the formation of effective systems of insulation of internal walls that protect the living space of the interior from the heat-humidity and phyto-aggressive properties of the appearance of the greenhouse. It is established that the foam at an average density of 18-20 kg/m3 has the following characteristics: diffusion water absorption without coating is 0.44 kg / m2; diffusion water absorption with a metallic coating 0.37 kg / m2; water absorption by partial immersion in water for 24 hours 0,013 kg / m2; body water when fully immersed in water for 28 days 0.96%. The nature of the destruction of the contact surface "foam-metal" is cohesive in the adhesive layer, and the destructive stress is 12-17 kPa.
The results of the selection of compositions and technologies of composite material based on fine-ground high - activity waste production of Portland cement, mineral binder, additives based on polycarboxylates MC-6995, as well as polymer additives MC-Adhesive are presented. The concrete structure is reinforced with mineral fiber. MC-Adhesive is a polymer additive used to: significantly increase the bending strength; reduce the elastic modulus; increase the water resistance; increase the connectivity of concrete mixtures; manufacture of coatings with high requirements for abrasion resistance, low dusting and high resistance to aggressive substances. The purpose of the research is to prepare and conduct an experiment aimed at creating the foundations of cellular concrete technology based on waste from the production of mineral binders and mineral fibers.
The energy efficiency of heating systems depends on the cost of manufacturing insulation materials and components, their installation and operation of the insulation shell. As insulation materials for the insulation of heating networks, products based on stone wool, polyurethane foam, extruded polystyrene foam, foam rubber and polyethylene foam are used. The basic principles of calculating the thickness of the thermal insulation of the pipeline based on the value of the standard heat flow density are given on the example of using products based on polyethylene foam. The calculation of the heat flow from the surface of the thermal insulation structure is carried out at a given thickness of the thermal insulation layer, if it is necessary to determine the heat loss (or cold loss). The basis for the calculation is a mathematical model of heat transfer, a developed calculation algorithm and a computer program. Insulation cylinders or cylinders in combination with thermal insulation coils are used for small diameter pipelines. Rolled materials are used for insulation of large diameters.
Various methods of creating an insulation coating for frameless buildings are analyzed. It is confirmed that products based on polyethylene foam, such as mats and rolls, fully meet the above criteria. In addition, the possibility of obtaining a seamless joint during installation significantly increases the efficiency of the insulation coating by minimizing cold bridges and eliminating leaks when connecting individual insulation elements. The article presents information on the results of thermal imaging monitoring of frameless structures with an insulating coating based on polyethylene foam. It is shown that hot-air welding (using a heat gun) minimizes heat losses both at the joints of the sheets and in areas adjacent to the base and side walls of buildings.
The results of the study of the state of production of foam glass and the nomenclature of its products are presented. It is shown that it is advisable to use recycled glass obtained from bottle packaging, waste glass and double-glazed windows as raw materials for the production of foam glass. The features of the production technology of foam glass on specialized lines are described. The features of the technology are the composition of the charge and the temperature conditions of heat treatment. Currently, about 70% of the foam glass aggregate is used for roofs and stylobates; the rest is used in landscaping, road construction, foundations, and major repairs. The areas of application of foam glass can be significantly expanded in the direction of building systems, light aggregates, etc., which implies an in-depth study of the properties of this material.
The possibilities of solving engineering problems in the study of technological processes using the method of analytical optimization are considered. The essence of this method is to represent the technological process as a cybernetic system; statistical evaluation of each element of the system to obtain mathematical functions; analytical study of these functions and obtaining optimization dependencies. The research methods described in this article are implemented in the study of the technology of cellular concrete, expanded polystyrene concrete, cement polymer concrete and mineral wool products. As an example, the article considers the optimization of foam concrete technology.
The concept of energy efficiency includes energy conservation and durability of building systems. Ceramic brickwork offers the highest reliability and durability, and also belongs to the category of non-combustible. It is possible to improve the thermophysical properties of masonry made of ceramic products by using heat-insulating ceramics and, in particular, porous ceramic stones. The use of burn-out additives does not allow for a uniform distribution of porosity over the material. The use of expanded vermiculite fractions up to 0.5 mm allows you to form a uniform porosity. The results of the experiment allow us to determine the optimal density and density of ceramivermiculite and to evaluate the influence of technological parameters on its properties.
The analysis of the properties of products based on continuous basalt fiber, which provides high fire resistance, thermal insulation, vibration resistance, noise insulation, as well as chemical durability, including durability in the Arctic atmosphere and the impact of the marine climate. This fiber is the basis for construction fabric, canvas and special purpose products. It is proposed to manufacture insulation systems for engineering structures of special buildings using basalt fiber fabrics, canvas and fire-resistant rolled materials.
One of the aspects of the use of heat - insulating multifunctional shells-the preservation of cold-is investigated. This task is relevant for cold storage rooms, workshops and warehouses, where it is necessary to constantly maintain low temperatures, for sports facilities (for example, ice rinks and ski complexes). In all applications, the main goal is to achieve economic efficiency, which is expressed in functional results (preservation of the material that breaks down at positive temperatures) and in energy savings. The article also presents the experience of using heat, steam and moisture insulation shells based on polyethylene foam when equipping frameless and frame structures, sports facilities, as well as for snow preservation in ski resorts.
The use of a clay-gypsum mixture in the composition of a modified dispersed reinforced binder contributes to the creation of favorable environmental conditions and the formation of a comfortable climate inside agricultural premises, as well as increases the degree of protection of structures from fire. conditions. The technological properties of dispersed reinforced gypsum mixtures depend primarily on the composition of the modified clay-gypsum binder, the consumption of mineral fiber and its length. The fiber diameter in the range of 3.2-3.4 microns does not significantly affect the properties of the mixtures. Dispersed reinforcement in the range from 1 to 5% slightly affects the average density of clay-gypsum mixtures and plaster coatings based on them. The 20% increase in bending strength determines the greater resistance of plaster coatings to temperature effects.
The results of studies of the properties and features of the use of rolled polyethylene foam with or without a metallized coating are presented. The tensile strength of the product for products with a metallized coating is 80-92 kPa, without a metallized coating-80-87 kPa, and for the weld - 29-32 kPa. Insulation systems have been developed (which have found wide practical application) and a full-scale heat engineering assessment of these systems and the condition of the wooden frame in the building has been carried out. It is established that the thermal resistance of the structure is 2.96 m2 K / W, the heat transfer resistance is 3.12 m2 KK / V. The humidity of the frame wood is 7.7-7.8%.
This book presents the main findings of a study on school learning environments and student outcomes, which the World Bank conducted in 2019 in three regions of the Russian Federation. Using data collected through the OECD School User Survey and the pilot “Trends in Mathematics and Science Study” (TIMSS), the book analyzes how a school’s infrastructure and learning environment may affect the progress and success of students in math and science. It also delves into teaching practices, analyzing their impact on learning and highlighting the important nexus between learning environments and teaching methods. The book concludes by recommending areas in which focused attention by educational authorities could improve educational policy and help maintain high-quality learning environments. The book will be useful for educators, school principals, architects, and policy makers who are involved in school infrastructure projects and are interested in increasing their knowledge of school design planning.
Finishing materials in facade cladding systems experience significant loads associated with atmospheric and mechanical influences. The use of facing tiles, which have high resistance and the possibility of relaxation of deformations, allows you to obtain high-performance cladding for construction systems. The article presents the results of the selection of compositions and technologies composite material based on the basis of fine-ground high-level waste production of Portland cement, mineral binder, additives based on polycarboxylates, as well as polymer additives. A polymer additive used for: significantly increasing the bending strength; reducing the elastic modulus; increasing water resistance; improving the connectivity of concrete mixes; manufacturing coatings with high requirements for abrasion, low dust and high resistance to aggressive substances. The purpose of the research is to prepare and conduct an experiment aimed at creating the foundations of the technology of facing products based on waste from the production of mineral binders.
The basic requirements for the insulation systems of pitched roofs are given. The properties of thermal insulation materials used in insulation systems are analyzed. It is confirmed that the heat resistance of such structures on the roof surface is formed taking into account the thermal conductivity of thermal insulation, the thermal conductivity of wooden rafters and heat loss as a result of temperature bridges and loose contact of insulation to the rafters. The impact of various types of loads on the thermal insulation layer is evaluated, namely: the influence of the air flow in the ventilated gap; the movement of the vapor-air mixture in the material; condensation of water vapor and penetration of liquid droplets. The expediency of using products based on reinforced foamed plastics in the construction of pitched roofs with a wooden roof system is justified, taking into account the advantages and features of these materials.
The results of thermal imaging monitoring of building structures with and without insulation are discussed. Studies and thermal and physical calculations have shown that the loss of heat from the premises is determined by two groups of factors: the loss of surface depending on the thermal conductivity, as well as the permeability of steam and air from the enclosing elements and the loss of heat in all types of structures. Thermal insulation with plate materials significantly reduces heat loss, but at the same time, heat leaks through the joints between the heat - insulating plates and in the area of their contact with other structural elements, which requires the use of steam-and waterproof windproof roll materials. The use of elastic and thermoplastic materials in the insulation system minimizes heat loss at the joints between the thermal insulation elements and along the smooth surface of the wall. In the systems of frame cottages, when using rolled polyethylene foam as a thermal insulation, it becomes possible to form a seamless insulation shell of the building.
Insulation systems of building structures involve solving the following group of tasks: creating favorable conditions for the operation of structural elements and construction in general; optimizing heat loss through insulation shells; creating comfortable conditions in the room. Such a system will function normally if effective thermal insulation, including polyethylene, is used. The article presents the results of experimental studies, the purpose of which is to optimize the composition of polyethylene foam with the addition of secondary polyethylene, the formation of methods for selecting its composition and the development of systems for the use of products. The main provisions of the analytical optimization method are presented, which allows to significantly reduce the material and processing time of the experimental results. The article discusses the aspects of the implementation of building systems using products based on polyethylene foam from the point of view of minimizing heat loss through contact zones.
Methods of dispersed reinforcement of the concrete matrix with the help of fibers make it possible to manufacture structures of complex configuration and solve the problems of frost resistance of products. Fiber replaces secondary reinforcement, reducing the amount of use of structural steel reinforcement. Cellular fiber concrete is characterized by increased flexural and tensile strength, impact strength and crack resistance. One of the promising types of dispersed reinforcement of light concrete is the use of expanded vermiculite. Expanded vermiculite can be simultaneously considered as a strengthening component of the lamellar structure, as a component that reduces the density of the material and its thermal conductivity, as well as improves fire-fighting properties. The foamed vermiculite can be used both in facing piece products, and as a part of dry warm and fire-resistant gypsum mixes".
The existence problem for attractors of foliations with transverse linear connection is investigated. In general foliations with transverse linear connection do not admit attractors. A conditions that implies the existence of a global attractor which is a minimal set, is specified. An application to transversely similar pseudo-Riemannian foliations is obtained. The global structure of transversely similar Riemannian foliations is described. Different examples are constructed.
The Paris Agreement invited Parties to develop low-emission development strategies. This study presents national low-emission scenarios to inform such strategies for Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, EU-28, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Russia and the USA. We use country-level technology-rich energy-economy and integrated assessment models that include detailed representations of the energy, transport and land systems and provide insights on emissions, energy system and economic implications of low-emission pathways until 2050. We show that the low-emission pathways of most economies studied here are consistent with pathways limiting global temperature increase to well-below 2 °C, while emission reductions are achieved through uptake of renewable energy, energy efficiency improvements and electrification of energy services. The role of mitigation options like nuclear, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and advanced biofuels is differentiates across countries, depending on national priorities, specificities and resource endowments. The energy system transformation requires a pronounced reallocation of investments towards low-carbon technologies, but without raising significant affordability issues in most countries. National pathways improve the consistency between country policy plans with global temperature goals and capture structural heterogeneities and broad socio-economic considerations.
Russia is one of the largest carbon emitters in the world, possessing huge resources of both fossil fuels and zero-carbon energy sources. The Paris Agreement targets require substantial efforts to limit global warming to “well below 2 °C”. Energy-economic modeling provides sound conclusions that continuation of existing energy and climate policy will lead to stabilization of energy carbon emissions in Russia at the current level in 2010–2050 (about 30% below 1990). Stronger mitigation policies could gradually reduce domestic energy CO2 emissions by 61% from 2010 to 2050 (75% below 1990). Deep decarbonization policies with even more ambitious commitments could ensure an 83% reduction in energy CO2 emissions from 2010 levels (88% below 1990) by 2050. All key sectors (energy, industries, transport, and buildings) can play a substantial role in decarbonizing the national economy. However Russia’s historical reliance on domestic consumption and exports of fossil fuels creates strong barriers to decarbonization. Emission reduction costs are expected to be below 29 USD/tCO2 by 2030, 55 USD/ tCO2 by 2040, and 82 USD/tCO2 by 2050 in the most ambitious decarbonization scenario. The results of this study provide insights into how Russia can enhance its ambitions to implement the Paris Agreement and contribute to global efforts toward building a climate-neutral economy by 2050.
In the last 50 years, the biosphere, upon which humanity depends, has been altered to an unparalleled degree. The current economic model relying on fossil resources and addicted to “growth at all costs” is putting at risk not only life on our planet, but also the world’s economy. The need to react to the unprecedented COVID-19 crisis is a unique opportunity to transition towards a sustainable wellbeing economy centered around people and nature. After all, deforestation, biodiversity loss and landscape fragmentation have been identified as key processes enabling direct transmission of zoonotic infectious diseases. Likewise, a changing climate has profound implications for human health. Putting forward a new economic model requires transformative policies, purposeful innovation, access to finance, risk-taking capacity as well as new and sustainable business models and markets. But above all we need to address the past failure of our economy to value nature, because our health and wellbeing fundamentally depends on it. A circular bioeconomy offers a conceptual framework for using renewable natural capital to holistically transform and manage our land, food, health and industrial systems with the goal of achieving sustainable wellbeing in harmony with nature. Within the framework of the Sustainable Markets Initiative, under the leadership of His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales, a 10-Point Action Plan to create a circular bioeconomy is proposed below. The Action Plan is a response to The Prince of Wales’ call to invest in nature as the true engine for our economy. The Action Plan, guided by new scientific insights and breakthrough technologies, is articulated around six transformative action points further discussed below and four enabling action points, which mutually reinforce each other.
A combined method for synthesizing a highly dispersed (0.8–2.5 μm) hydrophobic Na2O– Bi2O3–SiO2 powder (NBS powder) based on solutions of sodium methyl siliconate and bismuth nitrate is studied. The powder is synthesized at a reduced temperature (100°C). The microstructure and the phase composition of the resulting compounds in the Na2O–Bi2O3–SiO2 system at different processing temperatures are investigated. The structural phase transformations in the mineral phases of NBS powder are revealed in the temperature range of 100–500°C. The metastable bismuth silicate Bi2SiO5 at 400°C is transformed into stable sillenite with composition Bi12SiO20 having a cubic crystal structure (a = 10.1050 Å). The synthesized NBS powder can be used as a filler to fabricate highly effective constructional radiation-shielding polymer composites with tailored properties.
Diversification of energy sources in the road transport sector is becoming a global trend with the emergence of economically and technologically viable alternative fuels, such as electricity, biofuels, compressed natural gas, and others. With the transport sector generating over 50% of global oil demand, this trend obviously holds great significance. The Russian Federation, while being one of the world's major oil producers as well as energy consumers, is falling behind on this trend. However, the prospects for change are quite tangible. The article presents a long term outlook for changes in the Russian road transportation sector's fuel mix. The calculations demonstrate that switching to natural gas and electricity will reduce the share of petroleum products from 95% in 2015 to 74–86% by 2040. Nevertheless, the extent of support by the Russian Government for the infrastructural development will be the key factor to determine the end result. The incentives for natural gas and electric vehicles will also play a large role. The issue of fuel mix diversification will have to be resolved against the background of a 75% increase in the sector's energy consumption, expected in the next 20 yr. Petrol will remain a key fuel for transportation but its share will decrease from 59 to 40-47%, while the share of diesel will remain at 34-39%.
Recent research has revealed that more than 1.3 billion tons of food is wasted globally every year. The disposal of such huge biomass has become a challenge. In the present paper, we report the production of the bio-oil by hydrothermal liquefaction of three classes of food waste: meat, cheese and fruits. The highest yield of the bio-oil was observed for meat (∼60%) and cheese (∼75%), while for fruits, it was considerably low (∼10%). The molecular composition of the obtained bio-oil was investigated using ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry and was found to be similar to that obtained from algae. Several thousand heteroatom compounds (N, N2, ON2, etc. classes) were reliably identified from each sample. It was found that bio-oils produced from meat and cheese have many compounds (∼90%) with common molecular formulas, while bio-oil produced from fruits differs considerably (∼30% of compounds are unique).
This article aims to identify effects of client orientation on business models of central power generation companies.
Five major Russian wholesale electricity market players were selected for the analysis conducted applying A. Osterwalder and Y. Pigneur’s ‘Business Model Canvas’. To identify the changes induced by client orientation, the progress of companies’ business models was traced over 6 years; from 2009 to 2015.
Five major trends in business model changes due to client orientation were identified:
1. Declaration of client orientation and adoption of client service standards;
2. Advent of business diversification in favor of engineering, construction, service, operation and maintenance of generating facilities;
3. Increase in vertical integration;
4. Increase in diversity of communication channels with consumers;
5. Increase in diversity of customer relationships.
The results were compared with those obtained in international studies. Conclusions about international and local character of the trends are presented.
The study contributes to knowledge of current and upcoming changes in the business of central power generation triggered by the advent of electricity prosumers. It is valuable both for management decision makers and theorists.
The objective of this work is to develop a predictive model for multiphase wellbore flows using the machine learning approach. The artificial neural network is developed and then trained on the dataset generated using the numerical simulator of the full-scale transient wellbore flows. After the training is completed, the neural network is used to predict one of the key parameters of the wellbore flow, namely, the bottomhole pressure. The novelty of this work is related to the application of the neural network to analyze highly transient processes taking place in wellbores. In such processes, most of the parameters of interest can be represented by interdependent time series of variables linked through complex physical phenomena pertinent to the nature of multiphase flows. The proposed neural network with two hidden layers demonstrated the capability to predict the bottomhole pressure within 5% of the normalized root mean squared error for many complex wellbore configurations and flows. It is also shown that relatively higher prediction errors are mainly observed in the case of slug flows where the transient nature of flows is pronounced the most. Finally, the developed model is tested on data affected by noise. It is demonstrated that although the error of prediction slightly increases in contrast to the data without noise, the model captures essential features of the studied transient process. Description of the developed models, analysis of various test use cases, and possible future research directions are outlined.