Globalization is characterized not only by economic growth and prosperity but also by increasing pressure on natural resources, unsustainable patterns of consumption and production and increasing inequality. To study these global challenges and their impact on development processes authors identified modern trends in the field of bioeconomy and biotechnology developments, analyzed the main government programs, strategies, funds and statistical information from open sources. The basic principles of bioeconomy methods in agro, food and food security in European countries and in Russian Federation were determined and Genetic engineered organisms statistic, policy and public attitudes from open sources in Russia and European countries were compared
The article reflects undertaken worldwide steps to build the bioeconomy. Bioeconomy is a set of industries, from the point of view of economy, and a plurality of cross-industry research, in terms of global science. All this leads to difficulty in understanding the boundaries of bioeconomy, developing within the traditional economies. The article also presents the main instruments of support and development of biotechnology and bioeconomy in Russia, such as the National Technology Initiative (NTI), the Federal Targeted Programme for Research and Development in Priority Areas of Advancement of the Russian Scientific and Technological Complex for 2014-2020 (action 2.2). The influence of the international scientific and technological programs (Horizon 2020, ERA-NET) on the regional economy was also estimated.