This textbook on political geography is devoted to a discipline concerned with the spatial dimensions of politics. This course is an introduction to the study of political science, international relations and area studies, providing a systemic approach to the spatial dimension of political processes at all levels. It covers their basic elements, including states, supranational unions, geopolitical systems, regions, borders, capitals, dependent, and internationally administered territories. Political geography develops fundamental theoretical approaches that give insight into the peculiarities of foreign and domestic policies. The ability to use spatial analysis techniques allows determining patterns and regularities of political phenomena both at the global and the regional and local levels.
The Arctic Council is well-positioned to play a leadership role in better understanding the impact of Covid-19 in the Arctic and spearheading activities to respond to the pandemic in the short-, medium- and longer-term. This briefing document was prepared to inform initial discussions regarding the coronavirus pandemic in the Arctic at the Senior Arctic Officials’ executive meeting (SAOX) on 24-25 June 2020. It draws together available information – to date (June 2020) – about the impact of Covid-19 in the Arctic: Briefing Document for SAOs June 2020 For public release Page 10 of 83 Covid-19 and the actions taken to respond in the Arctic region. The document draws from a wide spectrum of sources, reflecting the complex and intricate nature of how Covid-19 affects Arctic peoples and communities, including national and subnational statistical databases and tools, peer-reviewed articles, policy statements, technical guidelines, field surveys, and local observations from Arctic communities.
Forest ecosystems, their products and services play an important role in achieving ambitious climate change mitigation objectives at the same time requiring profound adaptation to climate change. Forest management schemes to support climate action have to be developed within their regional context but also have to be aligned with national or EU-level climate, forest and sustainability policies. The conference on “Managing forests in the 21st century” is the final conference of the FORMASAM, REFORCE and FOREXCLIM research projects. The conference bringstogether scientific experts on forest management from all over Europe facing very specific management challenges. The aim isto discuss and improve the understanding the role of forests and forest management in the context of climate change. The conference addresses climate change impacts, as well as needs for mitigation and adaptation especially with regard to the following scientific questions: 1. What are the impacts of climate extremes and disturbances? 2. What are the management challenges (and options) for resilient forests? 3. What can we do to increase the contribution of forest management to climate change mitigation?
The paper provides findings of the research work and scientific discussions under the “Global Sustainability Strategy Forum” (GSSF) that aims to develop evidence-informed judgments on challenges and solutions. It views attaining sustainability as a set of closely-coupled societal and environmental challenges and opportunities that require integration of multiple disciplines, new research methods, and new knowledge sources with sensitivity to regional and cultural diversities. The project is designed to produce innovative insights and strategies to support effective governance of transitions to sustainability of our complex global social-ecological system within its inherent resource limitations, and to develop sustainable lifestyles that are practical and appealing in the different regions and cultures of the world.
The global climate change is one of the most dangerous threats to human society in the 21st Century. The dramatic losses have already been observed, and the risks are rising over time. CEECCA region experiences many negative impacts of global warming, which is faster and stronger than the world average. Numerous adaptation and resilience measures are required to protect people, but regional governments often underestimate and ignore the social implications of climate policies.This paper explores what are the priority challenges for CEECCA countries and how to address them effectively.
This book examines how Russia, the world’s most complicated country, is governed. As it resumes its place at the centre of global affairs, the book explores Russia’s overarching strategies, and how it organizes itself (or not) in policy areas ranging from foreign policy and national security to health care, education, immigration, science, sport, agriculture, the environment and criminal justice. The book also discusses the structures and institutions on which Russia relies in order to deliver its goals in these areas of national life, as well as what’s to be done, in policy terms, to improve the country’s performance in its first post-Soviet century. Edited by Irvin Studin, the book includes contributions from a tremendous list of Russia’s leading thinkers and specialists, including Alexei Kudrin, Vladimir Mau, Alexander Auzan, Simon Kordonsky, Fyodor Lukyanov, Natalia Zubarevich and Andrey Melville.
Global warming is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges for human society in the 21st century. The international community has agreed to undertake necessary actions to prevent dangerous anthropogenic impacts on the climatic system. Based on the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014), the UNFCCC Parties adopted the Paris Agreement aimed at limiting the global mean surface temperature rise by “well below 2 degrees Celsius”. Such an ambitious “climatic” target requires unprecedented efforts to reduce carbon emissions to almost zero worldwide this century. Moreover, in order to keep the warming below 1.5°C, the global total emissions must be reduced by 50% or more by 2050 (compared to current levels) and reach net-zero levels afterwards. In practical terms, it means that most of the countries should deeply decarbonize their economies, energy systems, industries, transport, buildings, products and services, while continuing growth of GDP and the standard of living of the population. The developed countries agreed to take the lead in climate change mitigation under the UNFCCC; however, the largest developing countries and emerging economies have started playing substantial roles in carbon emissions nowadays. In this decade, China became the world No.1 CO2 emitter overcoming the United States. The Northeast Asian (NEA) region, including China, Japan, Mongolia, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, and the Russian Federation, is responsible for annual emissions of over 12.4 billion tonnes of CO2 or approximately 40% of global energy-related CO2 emissions. These countries are huge contributors to global warming today and may increase their share further. The traditional way of combusting the huge fossil fuels reserves (coal, gas, and oil) available in the Northeast Asian region would emit greenhouse gases substantially exceeding the amounts that would warm the planet by 2°C. On the other hand, plentiful sources of renewable energy (solar, wind, hydro, tidal, and biomass, etc.) in combination with advanced technologies, investments, and land infrastructure developments can transform the Northeast Asian countries into decarbonized, climate- and environment-friendly economies with sustainable growth and development, fully consistent with the goals and commitments under the Paris Climate Agreement. Delays with the deep decarbonization of the Northeast Asian economies will impose higher risks for communities and life-supporting ecosystems, more losses and stranded assets for businesses, and slower technological progress worldwide. The analysis of challenges and opportunities in deep decarbonization pathways for the Northeast Asian region as a whole is presented in this publication. We raise many questions, and yet have not so many answers. By publishing this text, we want to invite all interested and concerned parties to start thinking about and debating these new, but very up-to-date issues of deep transformation of our economies, industries, consumer behavior, and ways of living in climate-neutral patterns, in order that we can urgently meet the need to save our planet and keep it in good shape for the generations to come.
The development and use of Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been a contentios subject for the last three decades. while there has been a number of social science analysis of the issues, this is the first book to assess the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the debate at such wide geographic scale. The various posiotions, for and against GMOs, particularly with regards to trangenic crops, articulated by NGOs in the debate are dissected, classified and juxtaposed to corresponding campaigns. these are discussed in the context of paradigms, including nature fundamentalism and the organic movement, post-colonialism, food sovereignty, anti-globalism, sustainability and feminism. This book also analyses how NGOs interprete the debate and the persuasive communication tactics.
The Paris Climate Agreement established a new target of combating global warming "well below 2 degrees Celsius". This goal will lead to the transformation and deep decarbonization of world economy aiming at nearly zero carbon emissions soon after 2050. The Northeastern Asian countries (responsible for 40% of global CO2 emissions) have all rechnological, resource and ivnestment potential for decarbonization both domestically and internationally, and can show leadership in this efforts on global scale.
The book provides the first in-depth, multidisciplinary study of reurbanization in Russia's Arctic regions, with a specific focus on new mobility patterns, and the resulting birth of new urban Arctic identities in which newcomers and labor migrants form a rising part. It is an invaluable reference for all those interested in current trends in circumpolar regions, showing how the Arctic is becoming more diverse culturally, but also more integrated into globalized trends in terms of economic development, urban sustainability, and migration.
The piblication provides the key lessons learnt from DDPP project experience on designing long-term pathways of low carbon development for 16 world largest economies. The Paris Climate Agreement requires countries to build their concrete vision of the national low-emission transition, consistent with global climate goals that would widely shared by domestic stakeholders and explicitly articulated with domestic socio-economic priorities. We analyze the experience of USA, France, Germany, Russia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, UK, Mexico, Canada, Italy, Brazil in projecting the deep decarbonization scenarios for their economies by 2050.
The book presents a brief summary of the scientific research on deep decarbonization of 16 largest economies by 2050.
This report examines the changes happening in Russia ever since the issue of global warming was introduced on the global agenda. Only today, after the planet has experienced a variety of catastrophic natural disasters, have world leaders and decision makers grown more aware of the urgency of the problem. In Russia, where climate changes have been more significant than globally on average, the government has increased its objectives in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and put forward a number of initiatives and green policy measures to achieve more sustainability in the long term. Russia’s target for greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 is set at 70-75 percent of the base level of 1990, according to the new action plan adopted by the Kremlin. Other states also recognize the problem but their positions differ in the way the issue should be solved. India, China, the U.S. and Brazil, all of which are important players analyzed in the report, find it hard to reach common ground in reaching a globally binding agreement. Whether this will be done ultimately depends on the outcome of the Paris climate change conference. The report also considers the state of the Russian climate change movement from the experience of NGO activities in Russia, provides an overview of the development of the Russian green energy sector with specific success stories and analyzes the prospects of renewable energy development in different regions of the country.
This supplementary material contains case studies presenting specific aspects of the DDPP country pathways. They illustrate and complement the cross-cutting analysis included in the 2015 DDPP synthesis report
The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) is a collaborative global research initiative seeking to understand how individual countries can transition, on a technological, socio-economic and policy “pathway”, to a low-carbon economy consistent with the internationally agreed goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to less than 2 degrees Celsius (2°C). Achieving this goal requires that the world cut global net emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) so that they approach zero between 2050 and 2075, consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)1 2014 findings that to ensure a better-than-even chance of remaining below a 2°C temperature rise, global annual emissions will need to be reduced 42%–57% by 2050 (relative to 2010), and 73%–107% by 2100. This will entail, more than any other factor, the profound transformation of energy systems through steeply reducing carbon intensity in all sectors of the economy. We call this transition “deep decarbonization” and our products, Deep Decarbonization Pathways (DDPs).
The present volume is the fourth issue of the Yearbook series entitled ‘Evolution’. The title of the present volume is ‘From Big Bang to Nanorobots’. In this way we demonstrate that all phases of evolution and Big History are covered in the articles of the present Yearbook. Several articles also present the forecasts about future development.
The main objective of our Yearbook as well as of the previous issues is the creation of a unified interdisciplinary field of research in which the scientists specializing in different disciplines could work within the framework of unified or similar paradigms, using the common terminology and searching for common rules, tendencies and regularities. At the same time for the formation of such an integrated field one should use all available opportunities: theories, laws and methods. In the present volume, a number of such approaches are used.
The volume consists of four sections: Universal Evolutionary Principles; Biosocial Evolution, Ecological Aspects, and Consciousness; Projects for the Future; In Memoriam.
This Yearbook will be useful both for those who study interdisciplinary macroproblems and for specialists working in focused directions, as well as for those who are interested in evolutionary issues of Cosmology, Biology, History, Anthropology, Economics and other areas of study. More than that, this edition will challenge and excite your vision of your own life and the new discoveries going on around us!
The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) is a collaborative initiative to understand and show how individual countries can transition to a low-carbon economy and how the world can meet the internationally agreed target of limiting the increase in global mean surface temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius (°C). Achieving the 2°C limit will require that global net emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) approach zero by the second half of the century. This will require a profound transformation of energy systems by mid-century through steep declines in carbon intensity in all sectors of the economy, a transition we call “deep decarbonization.” Successfully transitioning to a low-carbon economy will require unprecedented global cooperation, including a global cooperative effort to accelerate the development and diffusion of some key low carbon technologies.
This collection is a special issue of Russian Sociological Review dedicated to the concept of border. The concept itself seems to draw attention in many disciplines. As spatial phenomena, borders are always drawn in spaces, while social scientists, philosophers and other academics often have different meanings of space. Recent reconsiderations of space in terms of networks, flows and events, bring even more complexity to the concept. The current volume contributes to both theoretical and empirical studies of borders on various levels. Contributions look at the relevant phenomena from contemporary or historical perspectives, study narratives about borders, reconstructions of the empirical configurations of borders and other objects (such as bodies), exploring how borders emerge and reshape existing spaces, etc. Overall, the issue contributes to the emerging interdisciplinary field of border studies and encourages cross-disciplinary dialogue.
Using molecular dynamics simulation and evolutionary metadynamic calculations, a series of structures were revealed that possessed enthalpies and Gibbs energies lower than those of aragonite but higher than those of calcite. The structures are polytypes of calcite, differing in the stacking sequence of close-packed (cp) Ca layers. The two- and six-layered polytypes have hexagonal symmetry P6322 and were named hexarag and hexite, respectively. Hexarag is similar to aragonite, but with all the triangles placed on the middle distance between the cp layers. On the basis of the structures found, a two-step mechanism for the transformation of aragonite to calcite is suggested. In the first step, CO3 triangles migrate to halfway between the Ca layers with the formation of hexarag. In the second step, the two-layered cp (hcp) hexarag structure transforms into three-layered cp (fcc) calcite through a series of many …
Phases of CaCO3 stabilized at high pressures and temperatures are the potential agents of the global carbon cycle, transferring oxidized carbon in deep Earth’s interiors and thus are of special interest for the Earth sciences. Here, we report finding of the new phase, named disarag, which is dynamically disordered aragonite with freely rotating CO3 groups, similar to that in the CaCO3-V phase with a calcite-like structure. Disarag has a stability field expanding from 3 to 10 GPa and from 1600 to 2000 K. Consideration of twinned structure enlarges this field, decreasing the transition temperature from aragonite to disarag at 100–300 K. At P–T parameters corresponding to the transition from aragonite to disarag, the marked disappearance of the diffraction peaks is observed in in situ experiments. We show that, among known phases of CaCO3, disarag is the best candidate for the explanation of this reconstruction of …
Pressure-temperature-volume (P-T-V) data on liquid iron-sulfur (Fe-S) alloys at the Earth’s outer core conditions (~136 to 330 GPa, ~4000 to 7000 K) have been obtained by first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. We developed a thermal equation of state (EoS) composed of Murnaghan and Mie-Grüneisen-Debye expressions for liquid Fe-S alloys. The density and sound velocity are calculated and compared with Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) to constrain the S concentration in the outer core. Since the temperature at the inner core boundary (TICB) has not been measured precisely (4850~7100 K), we deduce that the S concentration ranges from 10~14 wt% assuming S is the only light element. Our results also show that Fe-S alloys cannot satisfy the seismological density and sound velocity simultaneously and thus S element is not the only light element. Considering the geophysical and …
An axisymmetric model is used to study changes in the shape of the Earth’s radiation belts and energy spectra of charged particles in them during a geomagnetic field reversal. Regions of stable existence of radiation belts are obtained analytically by generalizing the Størmer theory to the case of an axisymmetric quadrupole. An reversal scenario is proposed in which it is shown that a gradual reduction of radiation belts can occur with a decrease in the dipole component of the modern geomagnetic field. The spatial and energy distributions of the flux density of protons and electrons are obtained, which made it possible to determine the maximum dose rate of radiation on various magnetic shells during the reversal process.
The influence of an auroral substorm on the total electron content (TEC) jumps and cycle slips on Global Positioning System (GPS) at high-latitudes is studied. For the first time, optical data from the all-sky imager, as well as interplanetary magnetic field and magnetometer data are used to complete the analysis of the slips occurrence and to monitor the substorm evolution. Two types of slips are considered: (i) instrumental slips including losses in the measured phase of the GPS signal and (ii) sharp TEC variations (TEC jumps) It is demonstrated that the jumps in TEC determined from the GPS signals are mainly related to the auroral particle precipitation that normally occurs during geomagnetic substorms in the polar ionosphere. The GPS frequency L2 is consistently subject to more slips than frequency L1 both for quiet and disturbed conditions. The probability of TEC jumps is higher than for cycle slips in phase at frequencies L1 and L2. The maximum of TEC jumps is observed during the recovery phase of the auroral substorm. Our findings are based on a data set obtained for a particular event. A generalization of the obtained numerical estimates to other events requires additional research and further analysis.
We present a multi-instrumental study of ionospheric irregularities of different scales (from tens of centimeters to few kilometers) observed over the Central and East Siberia, Russia, during a moderate-to-strong geomagnetic storm on 27-28 May 2017. From high-frequency (HF) and ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) radar data, we observed an intense auroral backscatter developed right after the initial phase of the geomagnetic storm. Additionally, we examined variations of Global Positioning System (GPS)-based ROT (rate of TEC changes, where TEC is total electron content) for available GPS receivers in the region. Ionosondes, HF, and UHF radar data exhibited a presence of intense multi-scale ionospheric irregularities. We revealed a correlation between different-scale Auroral/Farley-Buneman ionospheric irregularities of the E layer during the geomagnetic storm. The combined analysis showed that an area of intense irregularities is well connected and located slightly equatorward to field-aligned currents (FACs) and auroral oval at different stages of the geomagnetic storm. An increase and equatorward displacement of Region 1 (R1)/Region 2 (R2) FACs leads to appearance and equatorward expansion of ionospheric irregularities. During downward (upward) R1 FAC and upward (downward) R2 FAC, the eastward and upward (westward and downward) E x B drift of ionospheric irregularities occurred. Simultaneous disappearance of UHF/HF auroral backscatter and GPS ROT decrease occurred during a prolonged near noon reversal of R1 and R2 FAC directions that accompanied by R1/R2 FAC degradation and disappearance of high-energy auroral precipitation.
This work presents the first results of measurements of artificial plasma disturbance characteristics using the low-orbit NorSat-1 satellite, which are excited when the ionospheric F2 layer is modified by powerful high-frequency (HF) waves emitted by the SURA heating facility. NorSat-1 carries the multineedle Langmuir probe instrument, which is capable of sampling the electron density at a nominal rate up to 1 kHz. The uniqueness of this experiment lies in the fact that the satellite passes very close to the center of the HF-perturbed magnetic flux tube and in situ observations are first carried out in winter when the absorption is still small in the morning as the Sun is low above the horizon. There are HF-induced plasma temperature and density variations at satellite altitudes of about 580 km. Plasma irregularities are detected by in situ measurements down to 200 m at the southern border of the SURA heating region.
Space remains a largely unexploited frontier for cutting-edge research and technology development, policy development, and progressive education and training. The Sun accounts for more than 99% of the mass of the entire solar system. The incremental or transformative advances in civilisation have been the direct or indirect product of the influence of the Sun on Earth, being the ultimate source of energy. There still resides huge unexploited potential that demands humanity’s sophisticated understanding of the solar system and the four mysteries of the cosmos: light, gravity, space and time or space-time. The solar wind and its effects on space weather is an area of active research with immediate implications for early warning systems and the overall wellbeing of life on Earth. The sun's magnetic field and its variability as well as the changes in the atmosphere and their effects can cause detrimental effects. Solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), high-speed wind and energetic particles negatively impact power grids. Solar storms interfere with computers, banking systems, and disrupt satellites and GNSS technology. Charge particle emissions cause Aurora Australis and Aurora borealis. Mild space weather has degraded electric power quality, perturbed navigation systems, interrupted satellite functions and are hazardous to astronauts' health. Severe storms interfere with electric power system and cause the loss of satellites due to damaged electronics or increased orbital drag. An in-depth study of the ionosphere and climate helps to obtain information on their impact on agriculture, telecommunications system, and satellites. In summary, the following are usually affected by space weather events and processes.
The influence of mole fraction and nature of the cations in positions A and B of the pyrochlores containing Na+, Ca2+, Cd2+, U4+, Nb5+, Ta5+, Ti4+, Sb5+, Zr4+, V3+, V4+, W5+, W6+ synthesized under hydrothermal conditions at 800 °C, 200 MPa and controlled oxygen fugacity in NaF solution of 1.0 mol·kg−1 H2O on lattice parameters has been considered. The unit cell parameters of the fluorpyrochlores where for Nb5+ or Ta5+ were substituted by other cations showing distinct linear variations from the effective cations radii in positions A and B. Based on the literary data analysis, the two-parameter nonlinear equation describing dependence of pyrochlore lattice parameters on the cation radii for the oxide-pyrochlores has been proposed