The goal of this International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS) chapter is to survey, catalog, and assess the status of technologies in the areas of cryogenic electronics and quantum information processing. Application drivers are identified for sufficiently developed technologies and application needs are mapped as a function of time against projected capabilities to identify challenges requiring research and development effort. Cryogenic electronics (also referred to as low-temperature electronics or cold electronics) is defined by operation at cryogenic temperatures (below −150 °C or 123.15 K) and includes devices and circuits made from a variety of materials including insulators, conductors, semiconductors, superconductors, or topological materials. Existing and emerging applications are driving development of novel cryogenic electronic technologies. Information processing refers to the input, transmission, storage, manipulation or processing, and output of data. Information processing systems to accomplish a specific function, in general, require several different interactive layers of technology. A top-down list of these layers begins with the required application or system function, leading to system architecture, micro- or nano-architecture, circuits, devices, and materials. A fundamental unit of information (e.g., a bit) is represented by a computational state variable, for example, the position of a bead in the ancient abacus calculator or the voltage (or charge) state of a node capacitance in CMOS logic. A binary computational state variable serves as the foundation for von Neumann computational system architectures that dominated conventional computing. Quantum information processing is different in that it uses qubits, two-state quantum-mechanical systems that can be in coherent superpositions of both states at the same time, which can have computational advantages. Measurement of a qubit in a given basis causes it to collapse to one of the basis states. Technology categories covered in this report include: • Superconductor electronics (SCE) • Cryogenic semiconductor electronics (Cryo-Semi) • Quantum information processing (QIP)
Continuing miniaturization of electronic devices, together with the quickly growing number of nanotechnological applications, demands a profound understanding of the underlying physics. Most of the fundamental problems of modern condensed matter physics involve various aspects of quantum transport and fluctuation phenomena at the nanoscale. In nanostructures, electrons are usually confined to a limited volume and interact with each other and lattice ions, simultaneously suffering multiple scattering events on impurities, barriers, surface imperfections, and other defects. Electron interaction with other degrees of freedom generally yields two major consequences, quantum dissipation and quantum decoherence. In other words, electrons can lose their energy and ability for quantum interference even at very low temperatures. These two different, but related, processes are at the heart of all quantum phenomena discussed in this book.This book presents copious details to facilitate the understanding of the basic physics behind a result and the learning to technically reproduce the result without delving into extra literature. The book subtly balances the description of theoretical methods and techniques and the display of the rich landscape of the physical phenomena that can be accessed by these methods. It is useful for a broad readership ranging from master's and PhD students to postdocs and senior researchers.
The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below.
The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.
It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
The development of advanced electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage requires fine tuning of electrode reactions, which can be accomplished by altering the electrode/solution interface structure. Particularly, in case of an alkali-salt electrolyte the electric double layer (EDL) composition can be managed by introducing organic cations (e.g. room temperature ionic liquid cations) that may possess polar fragments. To explore this approach, we develop a theoretical model predicting the efficient replacement of simple (alkali) cations with dipolar (organic) ones within the EDL. For the typical values of the molecular dipole moment ($2-4~D$) the effect manifests itself at the surface charge densities higher than 30 $\mu C/cm^2$. We show that the predicted behavior of the system is in qualitative agreement with the molecular dynamics simulation results.
In this article, I summarize my theoretical developments in the statistical field theory of salt solutions of zwitterionic and multipolar molecules. Based on the Hubbard-Stratonovich integral transformation, I represent configuration integrals of dilute salt solutions of zwitterionic and multipolar molecules in the form of functional integrals over the space-dependent fluctuating electrostatic potential. In the mean-field approximation, for both cases, I derive integro-differential self-consistent field equations for the electrostatic potential, generated by the external charges in solutions media, which generalize the classical Poisson-Boltzmann equation. Using the obtained equations, in the linear approximation, I derive for the both cases a general expression for the electrostatic potential of a point-like test ion, expressed through certain screening functions. I derive an analytical expression for the electrostatic potential of the point-like test ion in a salt zwitterionic solution, generalizing the well known Debye-Hueckel potential. In the salt-free solution case, I obtain analytical expressions for the local dielectric permittivity around the point-like test ion and its effective solvation radius. For the case of salt solutions of multipolar molecules, I find a new oscillating behavior of the electrostatic field potential of the point-like test ion at long distances, which is caused by the nonzero quadrupole moments of the multipolar molecules. I obtain a general expression for the average quadrupolar length of a multipolar solute. Using the random phase approximation (RPA), I derive general expressions for the excess free energy of bulk salt solutions of zwitterionic and multipolar molecules and analyze the limiting regimes resulting from them. I generalize the salt zwitterionic solution theory for the case when several kinds of zwitterions are dissolved in the solution. In this case, within the RPA, I obtain a general expression for the solvation energy of the test zwitterion. Finally, I demonstrate how to take a systematic account of the excluded volume correlations between multipolar molecules in addition to their electrostatic correlations. I believe that the formulated findings could be useful for the future theoretical models of the real ion-molecular solutions, such as salt solutions of micellar aggregates, metal-organic complexes, proteins, betaines, etc.
Modern microchip-scale transceivers are capable of transmitting data at rates of the order of several terabits per second. In this regard, there is an urgent need to improve the interfaces connecting the chips and extend the bandpass of the interconnections. We use an approach combining silicon nitride nanophotonic circuits with 3D polymer waveguides fabricated by direct laser writing, which can be used as photonic interconnections or photonic wire bonds (PWB). These structures are designed, simulated, fabricated, and optimized for better light transmission at the telecommunication wavelength. An important part of this work is the study of the telecom signal transmission in a 3D polymer waveguide connecting two silicon nitride facing tapers. Two cases are considered: the tapers are one opposite the other or misaligned. Initially, the PWB shape was chosen to be Gaussian and then optimized: the top was circle-shaped and with the lower part still being Gaussian. Transmission losses were measured for both types of waveguides with different shapes. The idea of an optical multi-level crossing for photonic integrated circuits is also suggested as a solution to the problem of interconnections within a single chip.
A straightforward and facile procedure for the fabrication of superhydrophobic luminescent 3D nanomaterials was developed. Chemical modification of ultra-lightweight highly porous nanostructured aluminum oxyhydroxide (NOA) monoliths in 8-hydroxyquinoline vapors resulted in the formation of tris(8–hydroxyquinoline)aluminum on the surface of NOA nanofibrils. The original shape and size of the initial NOA monolith and its internal 3D nanostructure were completely preserved during the modification. Surface modified NOA samples demonstrated intense green luminescence as well as superhydrophobicity, the water contact angle being ~153°, the sliding angle ~6° and contact angle hysteresis ~8°. We believe that an unusual combination of properties inherent in the synthesized material will be advantageous for the design of water-proof self-cleaning photonic devices.
We report on the first experimental evidence of the electrorheological effect in suspensions of superfine pyrochlore-type Bi1.8Fe1.2SbO7 powders. Tensile-compressive and shear stress studies of the electrorheological fluids, with various filler contents, revealed an exceptionally high electrorheological effect in the materials – the tensile yield strength at 5 kV/mm reached about 20 kPa. The frequency dependencies of dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss tangent, and the conductivity of the suspensions with various filler contents allowed estimation of the dielectric permittivity values for superfine Bi1.8Fe1.2SbO7 particles at zero and infinite frequencies. The study reveals new oxide materials as promising fillers for electrorheological fluids.
Photochromic tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesized to evaluate their potential for biomedical applications. PVP-stabilized tungsten oxide nanoparticles demonstrated a highly selective cytotoxic effect on normal and cancer cells in vitro. WO3 nanoparticles were found to induce substantial cell death in osteosarcoma cells (MNNG/HOS cell line) with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 5 mg/mL, while producing no, or only minor, toxicity in healthy human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSc). WO3 nanoparticles induced intracellular oxidative stress, which led to apoptosis type cell death. The selective anti-cancer effects of WO3 nanoparticles are due to the pH sensitivity of tungsten oxide and its capability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which is expressed in the modulation of genes involved in reactive oxygen species metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis.
Planarian freshwater flatworms have the unique ability to regenerate due to stem cell activity. The process of regeneration is extremely sensitive to various factors, including light radiation. Here, the effect of low-intensity LED light of different wavelengths on regeneration, stem cell proliferation and gene expression associated with these processes was studied. LED matrices with different wavelengths (red (λmax = 635 nm), green (λmax = 520 nm) and blue (λmax = 463 nm), as well as LED laser diodes (red (λmax = 638.5 nm), green (λmax = 533 nm) and blue (λmax = 420 nm), were used in the experiments. Computer-assisted morphometry, whole-mount immunocytochemical study and RT-PCR were used to analyze the biological effects of LED light exposure on the planarian regeneration in vivo. It was found that a one-time exposure of regenerating planarians with low-intensity red light diodes stimulated head blastema growth in a dose-dependent manner (up to 40%). The green light exposure of planarians resulted in the opposite effect, showing a reduced head blastema growth rate by up to 21%. The blue light exposure did not lead to any changes in the rate of head blastema growth. The maximum effects of light exposure were observed at a dose of 175.2 mJ/cm2. No significant differences were revealed in the dynamics of neoblasts' (planarian stem cells) proliferation under red and green light exposure. However, the RT-PCR gene expression analysis of 46 wound-induced genes revealed their up-regulation upon red LED light exposure, and down-regulation upon green light exposure. Thus, we have demonstrated that the planarian regeneration process is rather sensitive to the effects of low-intensity light radiation of certain wavelengths, the biological activity of red and green light being dictated by the different expression of the genes regulating transcriptional activity.
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) have recyclable antioxidative activity. It has numerous potential applications in biomedical engineering, such as mitigating damage from burns, radiation, and bacterial infection. This mitigating activity is analogous to that property of metabolic enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase - scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, nanoceria can protect cells from environmental oxidative stress. This therapeutic effect prompted studies of nanoceria and metabolic enzymes as a combination therapy. The activity and structure of SOD, catalase, and lysozyme were examined in the presence of nanoceria. A complementary relationship between SOD and nanoceria motivated the present work, in which we explored a method for simultaneous delivery of SOD and nanoceria. The biocompatibility and tunable degradation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) made it a candidate material for encapsulating both nanoceria and SOD. Cellular uptake studies were conducted along with a cytotoxicity assay. The antioxidative properties of PLGA-nanoceria-SOD particles were verified by adding H2O2 to cell culture and imaging with fluorescent markers of oxidative stress. Our results suggest that PLGA is a suitable encapsulating carrier for simultaneous delivering nanoceria and SOD together, and that this combination effectively reduces oxidative stress in vitro.
Remote nano-magneto-mechanical actuation of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by non-heating extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) is explored as a tool for non-invasive modification of bionanomaterials in pharmaceutical and medical applications. Here we study the effects of ELF MF (30-160 Hz, 8-120 kA/m) on the activity and release of a model enzyme, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) immobilized by polyion coupling on dispersed MNPs aggregates coated with poly(L-lysine)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer (s-MNPs). Such fields do not cause any considerable heating of MNPs but promote their rotating-oscillating mechanical motion that produces mechanical forces and deformations in adjacent materials. We observed the changes in the catalytic activity of immobilized SOD1 as well as its release from the s-MNPs/SOD1 polyion complex upon application of the ELF MF for 5 to 15 min. At longer exposures (25 min) the s-MNPs/SOD1 dispersion destabilizes. The bell-shaped effect of the field frequency with maximum at f = 50 Hz and saturation effect of field strength (between 30 kA/m and 120 kA/m at f = 50 Hz) are reported and explained. The findings are significant as one early indication of the nano-magneto-mechanical disruption by ELF MF of cooperative polyion complexes that are widely used for design of current functional healthcare bionanomaterials.