The book contains 19 national reports and a comparative legal analysis of the legal regulations on the procedure of genome editing on the human germline. It is worked out which shared values the different legal systems connect and which differences exist. On this basis, it is examined whether an international regulation of the topic is possible and how it could be designed. In addition, it will be examined to what extent the regulations of other countries can serve as a model for German legislation.
One of the features of the developing suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the “biological clock” of the body, is the early expression of dopamine (DA) receptors in the absence of dopaminergic neurons as a source of DA. Only recently we showed that DA in SCN is synthesized together by nerve fibers containing only tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neurons containing only aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). This study was aimed to assess specific characteristics of the phenotype of TH-fibers in ontogenesis. For this purpose, PCR and immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of genes and proteins such as TH, AADC, vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), and receptors for DA (D1, D2) was performed. We have detected numerous TH-immunoreactive fibers in SCN of young and adult rats. VMAT was observed in some of them, which suggests vesicular storage of L-DOPA. Considering the key role of TH-fibers in cooperative synthesis of DA, we assumed the presence of their dopamine regulation. Using double immunolabeling, we showed that D1 and D2 are present in TH-fibers in adult rats, and only D1 in young rats. According to PCR, D1 and D2 are also expressed in neurons of SCN in adult rats and only D1 in young rats. Thus, it was shown for the first time that VMAT and D1 are coexpressed in TH-fibers synthesizing L-DOPA in SCN in young and adult rats, and also D2 receptors in adult rats, which suggests vesicular storage and dopamine regulation of L-DOPA secretion, respectively.
Valosin-containing human protein (VCP) or p97 performs enzyme functions associated with the maintenance of protein homeostasis and control of protein quality. Disruption of its normal functioning might be associated with the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Tissues of mice with toxininduced presymptomatic and early symptomatic stages of PD, as well as 52 treated and untreated patients with newly diagnosed PD and nine patients with a “predicted” form of PD, were investigated. Signifcant changes in Vcp gene expression were observed in almost all studied mouse tissues. A signifcant decrease in VCP expression specifc for PD was also detected at both the late preclinical and the early clinical stages of PD in untreated patients. Thus, a decrease in VCP expression is important for changes in the function of the nervous system at early stages of PD. Analysis of changes in VCP expression in all patients with PD and in Vcp in the peripheral blood of mice used as models of PD revealed signifcant decreases in expression specifc for PD. These data suggest that a decrease in the relative levels of VCP mRNA might serve as a biomarker for the development of pathology at the early clinical and preclinical stages of human PD.
The predictive properties of methods aimed for estimating the water content in skin from the spectral diffuse reflection characteristics near the water absorption line in the near-IR spectral range are analysed. Numerical simulation data, experimental data on diffuse reflection from human skin phantoms, and data from the reference data set of human skin reflectance spectra are used to consider the possibility of gaining additional information about the water distribution in skin. The influence of variations in the scattering coefficient and oxyhaemoglobin concentration on the water content estimates is investigated.
An important approach to an early diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is screening for peripheral biomarkers in patients at the early clinical stage. In this study, we evaluated catecholamine concentration changes in the tear fluid of untreated PD patients as biomarkers. Norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations in the tear fluid of patients were found to increase compared to those in age controls, which was especially pronounced on the side where motor symptoms appeared. On the contrary, the epinephrine concentration in the tear fluid of patients was reduced bilaterally. Since there was no reason to consider the markers found in the clinical stage of PD as markers of the preclinical stage, we additionally studied the tear fluid composition in mouse neurotoxic models of PD preclinical and clinical stages. The norepinephrine concentration in the tear fluid of mice from the clinical stage model was found to be higher than that in controls; in the preclinical stage model, the norepinephrine concentration had a tendency to increase. Therefore, both PD patients and mice from PD preclinical and clinical stage models manifest unidirectional changes in their tear fluid compositions, which may be considered as promising biomarkers for the development of early diagnosis.
The effect of low concentrations of miRNA on the ability of GeneChip miRNA 4.0 hybridization chips to evaluate their representation in the sample was studied. It is shown that the evaluation of the expression of 61 miRNAs is statistically significantly associated with the multiplicity of plasma dilution. Only 12 miRNAs showed very high Pearson correlation coefficient (>0.95) and they all decreased in response to dilution. High abundance of has-miR-4532 miRNA in plasma was demonstrated. This miRNA was never detected during sequencing of similar samples. It was concluded that in case of miRNA expression <1.12±0.33 units in log2 scale, dilution was not followed by further decrease in the signal intensity in GeneChip miRNA 4.0 chips.
Background: Sleep disorders have emerged as potential cancer risk factors.
Objective: This review discusses the relationships between sleep, obesity, and breathing disorders with concomitant risks of developing cancer.
Results: Sleep disorders result in an abnormal expression of clock genes, decreased immunity, and melatonin release disruption. Therefore, these disorders may contribute to cancer development. Moreover, in sleep breathing disorder, which are frequently experienced by the obese persons, the sufferer experiences intermittent hypoxia that may stimulate cancer cell proliferation.
Discussion: During short- or long- duration sleep, sleep-wake rhythm disruption may occur. Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea increase cancer risks. In short sleepers, an increased risk of stomach cancer, esophageal squamous cell cancer, and breast cancer were observed. Among long sleepers (>9 hours), the risk of some hematologic malignancies is elevated.
Conclusion: Several factors including insomnia, circadian disruption, obesity, and intermittent hypoxia in obstructive sleep apnea are contributing risk factors for increased risk of several types of cancers. However, further studies are needed to determine the more significant of these risk factors and their interactions.
Background: The ability of the human body to produce metabolic energy from light modifies fundamental concepts of biochemistry.
Objective: This review discusses the relationships between the long-accepted concept is that glucose has a unique dual role as an energy source and as the main source of carbon chains that are precursors of all organic matter. The capability of melanin to produce energy challenges this premise.
Results: The prevalent biochemical concept, therefore, needs to be adjusted to incorporate a newly discovered state of Nature based on melanin’s ability to dissociate water to produce energy and to reform water from molecular hydrogen and oxygen.
Discussion: Our findings regarding the potential implication of QIAPI-1 as a melanin precursor that has bioenergetics capabilities.
Conclusion: Specifically, we reported its promising application as a means for treating retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The instant report focuses on the long-term treatment medical effects of melanin in treating ROP.
Background: In this review we survey medical treatments and research strategies, and we discuss why they have failed to cure degenerative disc diseases or even slow down the degenerative process.
Objective: We seek to stimulate discussion with respect to changing the medical paradigm associated with treatments and research applied to degenerative disc diseases.
Method Proposal: We summarize a Biological Transformation therapy for curing chronic inflammations and degenerative disc diseases, as was previously described in the book Biological Transformations controlled by the Mind Volume 1.
Preliminary Studies: A single-patient case study is presented that documents complete recovery from an advanced lumbar bilateral discopathy and long-term hypertrophic chronic rhinitis by application of the method proposed.
Conclusion: Biological transformations controlled by the mind can be applied by men and women in order to improve their quality of life and cure degenerative disc diseases and chronic inflammations illnesses.