Forest ecosystems, their products and services play an important role in achieving ambitious climate change mitigation objectives at the same time requiring profound adaptation to climate change. Forest management schemes to support climate action have to be developed within their regional context but also have to be aligned with national or EU-level climate, forest and sustainability policies. The conference on “Managing forests in the 21st century” is the final conference of the FORMASAM, REFORCE and FOREXCLIM research projects. The conference bringstogether scientific experts on forest management from all over Europe facing very specific management challenges. The aim isto discuss and improve the understanding the role of forests and forest management in the context of climate change. The conference addresses climate change impacts, as well as needs for mitigation and adaptation especially with regard to the following scientific questions: 1. What are the impacts of climate extremes and disturbances? 2. What are the management challenges (and options) for resilient forests? 3. What can we do to increase the contribution of forest management to climate change mitigation?
This is the third book in a series on Medieval Novgorod and its surroundings and deals with a substantial body of animal bones that have been recovered over the last decade. The zooarchaeological evidence is discussed by the editor and a number of English and Russian specialists who dug the site, looking at domestic exploitation of animals, diet, animal husbandry, and butchery practices. Detailed data sets are provided to enable the reader to make comparisons with their own research, but the book is also suitable for those with a more general interest in Medieval Russian archaeology.
Cancer cells require exogenous methionine for survival and therefore methionine restriction is a promising avenue for treatment. The basis for methionine dependence in cancer cells is still not entirely clear. While the lack of the methionine salvage enzyme methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) is associated with methionine auxotrophy in cancer cells, there are other causes for tumors to require exogenous methionine. Restricting methionine by diet or by enzyme depletion, alone or in combination with certain chemotherapeutics, is a promising antitumor strategy.
This book examines how Russia, the world’s most complicated country, is governed. As it resumes its place at the centre of global affairs, the book explores Russia’s overarching strategies, and how it organizes itself (or not) in policy areas ranging from foreign policy and national security to health care, education, immigration, science, sport, agriculture, the environment and criminal justice. The book also discusses the structures and institutions on which Russia relies in order to deliver its goals in these areas of national life, as well as what’s to be done, in policy terms, to improve the country’s performance in its first post-Soviet century. Edited by Irvin Studin, the book includes contributions from a tremendous list of Russia’s leading thinkers and specialists, including Alexei Kudrin, Vladimir Mau, Alexander Auzan, Simon Kordonsky, Fyodor Lukyanov, Natalia Zubarevich and Andrey Melville.
The development and use of Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been a contentios subject for the last three decades. while there has been a number of social science analysis of the issues, this is the first book to assess the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the debate at such wide geographic scale. The various posiotions, for and against GMOs, particularly with regards to trangenic crops, articulated by NGOs in the debate are dissected, classified and juxtaposed to corresponding campaigns. these are discussed in the context of paradigms, including nature fundamentalism and the organic movement, post-colonialism, food sovereignty, anti-globalism, sustainability and feminism. This book also analyses how NGOs interprete the debate and the persuasive communication tactics.
The Paris Climate Agreement established a new target of combating global warming "well below 2 degrees Celsius". This goal will lead to the transformation and deep decarbonization of world economy aiming at nearly zero carbon emissions soon after 2050. The Northeastern Asian countries (responsible for 40% of global CO2 emissions) have all rechnological, resource and ivnestment potential for decarbonization both domestically and internationally, and can show leadership in this efforts on global scale.
The book provides the first in-depth, multidisciplinary study of reurbanization in Russia's Arctic regions, with a specific focus on new mobility patterns, and the resulting birth of new urban Arctic identities in which newcomers and labor migrants form a rising part. It is an invaluable reference for all those interested in current trends in circumpolar regions, showing how the Arctic is becoming more diverse culturally, but also more integrated into globalized trends in terms of economic development, urban sustainability, and migration.
The piblication provides the key lessons learnt from DDPP project experience on designing long-term pathways of low carbon development for 16 world largest economies. The Paris Climate Agreement requires countries to build their concrete vision of the national low-emission transition, consistent with global climate goals that would widely shared by domestic stakeholders and explicitly articulated with domestic socio-economic priorities. We analyze the experience of USA, France, Germany, Russia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, UK, Mexico, Canada, Italy, Brazil in projecting the deep decarbonization scenarios for their economies by 2050.
The book presents a brief summary of the scientific research on deep decarbonization of 16 largest economies by 2050.
This report examines the changes happening in Russia ever since the issue of global warming was introduced on the global agenda. Only today, after the planet has experienced a variety of catastrophic natural disasters, have world leaders and decision makers grown more aware of the urgency of the problem. In Russia, where climate changes have been more significant than globally on average, the government has increased its objectives in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and put forward a number of initiatives and green policy measures to achieve more sustainability in the long term. Russia’s target for greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 is set at 70-75 percent of the base level of 1990, according to the new action plan adopted by the Kremlin. Other states also recognize the problem but their positions differ in the way the issue should be solved. India, China, the U.S. and Brazil, all of which are important players analyzed in the report, find it hard to reach common ground in reaching a globally binding agreement. Whether this will be done ultimately depends on the outcome of the Paris climate change conference. The report also considers the state of the Russian climate change movement from the experience of NGO activities in Russia, provides an overview of the development of the Russian green energy sector with specific success stories and analyzes the prospects of renewable energy development in different regions of the country.
This supplementary material contains case studies presenting specific aspects of the DDPP country pathways. They illustrate and complement the cross-cutting analysis included in the 2015 DDPP synthesis report
The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) is a collaborative global research initiative seeking to understand how individual countries can transition, on a technological, socio-economic and policy “pathway”, to a low-carbon economy consistent with the internationally agreed goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to less than 2 degrees Celsius (2°C). Achieving this goal requires that the world cut global net emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) so that they approach zero between 2050 and 2075, consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)1 2014 findings that to ensure a better-than-even chance of remaining below a 2°C temperature rise, global annual emissions will need to be reduced 42%–57% by 2050 (relative to 2010), and 73%–107% by 2100. This will entail, more than any other factor, the profound transformation of energy systems through steeply reducing carbon intensity in all sectors of the economy. We call this transition “deep decarbonization” and our products, Deep Decarbonization Pathways (DDPs).
The present volume is the fourth issue of the Yearbook series entitled ‘Evolution’. The title of the present volume is ‘From Big Bang to Nanorobots’. In this way we demonstrate that all phases of evolution and Big History are covered in the articles of the present Yearbook. Several articles also present the forecasts about future development.
The main objective of our Yearbook as well as of the previous issues is the creation of a unified interdisciplinary field of research in which the scientists specializing in different disciplines could work within the framework of unified or similar paradigms, using the common terminology and searching for common rules, tendencies and regularities. At the same time for the formation of such an integrated field one should use all available opportunities: theories, laws and methods. In the present volume, a number of such approaches are used.
The volume consists of four sections: Universal Evolutionary Principles; Biosocial Evolution, Ecological Aspects, and Consciousness; Projects for the Future; In Memoriam.
This Yearbook will be useful both for those who study interdisciplinary macroproblems and for specialists working in focused directions, as well as for those who are interested in evolutionary issues of Cosmology, Biology, History, Anthropology, Economics and other areas of study. More than that, this edition will challenge and excite your vision of your own life and the new discoveries going on around us!
The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) is a collaborative initiative to understand and show how individual countries can transition to a low-carbon economy and how the world can meet the internationally agreed target of limiting the increase in global mean surface temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius (°C). Achieving the 2°C limit will require that global net emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) approach zero by the second half of the century. This will require a profound transformation of energy systems by mid-century through steep declines in carbon intensity in all sectors of the economy, a transition we call “deep decarbonization.” Successfully transitioning to a low-carbon economy will require unprecedented global cooperation, including a global cooperative effort to accelerate the development and diffusion of some key low carbon technologies.
This collection is a special issue of Russian Sociological Review dedicated to the concept of border. The concept itself seems to draw attention in many disciplines. As spatial phenomena, borders are always drawn in spaces, while social scientists, philosophers and other academics often have different meanings of space. Recent reconsiderations of space in terms of networks, flows and events, bring even more complexity to the concept. The current volume contributes to both theoretical and empirical studies of borders on various levels. Contributions look at the relevant phenomena from contemporary or historical perspectives, study narratives about borders, reconstructions of the empirical configurations of borders and other objects (such as bodies), exploring how borders emerge and reshape existing spaces, etc. Overall, the issue contributes to the emerging interdisciplinary field of border studies and encourages cross-disciplinary dialogue.
Work-book «The current state of the Russian oil and gas industry» is offered for publication as a training aid for students qualified at the direction 131000 “Oil and gas engineering”. We have described the geology of hydrocarbons, in particular - the geology of heavy oil, unconventional resources of energy, etc. In this workbook there are also methods for the development of deposits of heavy oil and produce shale oil. Special attention was given to unconventional sources of hydrocarbons, exactly, gas hydrates and clayey shale. Novelty of work-book is presentation of oil and gas terminology to students from China. This work-book is published for the first time and will be very useful for self-study students of oil and gas disciplines, as well as oil and gas terms in Russian, English and Chinese. The manuscript is classified as «Approved by UMO on Higher Education in the field of applied geology as a work book for students enrolled in the direction 131000 “Oil and Gas Engineering”».
Climate change is already having a negative impact on agricultural production in Russia, especially grain production, since this sector is perhaps the most dependent on weather and climate factors. This report presents an economic evaluation of the impact of climate change on crop production at the national level and a long-term economic evaluation of the losses, profits, and risks for agriculture throughout Russia. It analyses the situation in the two the major agricultural regions, where the negative effects of climate change are especially pronounced, and examines the prospects for adapting Russia’s agriculture to climate change
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P.A. Dangeard is a unicellular green alga capable to assimilate acetate. C. reinhardtii growth and metabolism distinctly depend on trophic conditions. Its influence on batch culture interferes with changes in the medium composition and metabolism of microalgae occurring during culture growth. The aim of this work was to estimate the effect of acetate on changes in the expression of 32 genes encoding enzymes of central metabolism and plastid transporters during growth of batch cultures of C. reinhardtii cc-124. In autotrophic conditions, transcription profiles considerably differed from the profiles in the presence of acetate. The strongest influence of trophic conditions was observed in the log phase of growth. In the presence of acetate, a more intense expression of gene ACS2 encoding plastid acetyl-CoA synthase and of the genes encoding subunits of enzymes directing acetyl groups to the synthesis of fatty acids was recorded. Elevated expression of genes PCK1 and PPT1 under mixotrophic conditions may be corresponded to the entry of acetate carbon to gluconeogenesis. In the presence of acetate, a high expression level of the starch metabolism genes was observed. Autotrophic conditions were notable for an elevated accumulation of transcripts of the genes encoding subunits of citrate lyase, which may be responsible for an outflow of acetyl groups from the Krebs cycle. Moreover, a higher level of expression was shown for genes of plastid transporters participating in the export of sugars from plastids, which is associated with the redistribution of reducing power in the cell. It was concluded that, on the level of transcription, similarity between mixotrophic and autotrophic cultures becomes more pronounced in the course of development.
A novel potent analog of the branched tail oxyquinoline group of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors, neuradapt, has been studied in two treatment regimes in an in vitro hypoxia model on murine primary hippocampal cultures. Neuradapt activates the expression of HIF1 and HIF2 target genes and shows no toxicity up to 20 μM, which is more than an order of magnitude higher than its biologically active concentration. Cell viability, functional activity, and network connectivity between the elements of neuronal networks have been studied using a pairwise correlation analysis of the intracellular calcium fluctuations in the individual cells. An immediate treatment with 1 μM and 15 μM neuradapt right at the onset of hypoxia not only protects from the death, but also maintains the spontaneous calcium activity in nervous cells at the level of the intact cultures. A similar neuroprotective effect in the post-treatment scenario is observed for 15 μM, but not for 1 μM neuradapt. Network connectivity is better preserved with immediate treatment using 1 μM neuradapt than with 15 μM, which is still beneficial. Post-treatment with neuradapt did not restore the network connectivity despite the observation that neuradapt significantly increased cell viability at 1 μM and functional activity at 15 μM. The preservation of cell viability and functional activity makes neuradapt promising for further studies in a post-treatment scenario, since it can be combined with other drugs and treatments restoring the network connectivity of functionally competent cells.
Currently, the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [HBV-HCC] relies on blunt tools that are unable to offer effective therapy for later stage pathogenesis. The potential of miRNA to treat HBV-HCC offer a more targeted approach to managing this lethal carcinoma; however, the complexity of miRNA as an ancillary regulator of the immune system remains poorly understood. This review examines the overlapping roles of HBx-dysregulated miRNA in HBV-HCC and immune pathways and seeks to demonstrate that specific miRNA response in immune cells is not independent of their expression in hepatocytes. This interplay between the two pathways may provide us with the possibility of using candidate miRNA to manipulate this interaction as a potential therapeutic option
Active intercellular interactions control the movement of cells relative to one another and play an important role in biological morphogenesis and processes associated with tissue remodeling. A continuum multiphase model of the mechanically active biological medium formed by two different types of cells and extracellular fluid is developed. The model includes additional phases responsible for active force interactions between cells. Such interactions (between cells both within the same phase and of different phases) are modeled by means of active stresses that develop in additional phases and depend (in the general case, nonlocally) on the densities of cell phases. The strain rates of the cell phases are determined by active stresses and also depend on other stresses acting in the medium. A model problem of the evolution of an initially homogeneous distribution of the densities of cell phases in an infinite plane layer is solved. Cases of a fixed position of the layer boundaries and of their possible displacement in the absence of external loading are considered. It is shown that the proposed model describes the phenomenon of cell sorting: cells of one type form a compact mass surrounded by cells of another type. The results of the solution have shown that the sorting process is possible only when taking into account the nonlocal dependence of active stresses on the densities of cell phases. The proposed model differs from other approaches to the theoretical description of sorting by introducing into consideration the parameters and relationships that have a distinct mechanical meaning (in particular, without using the concept of “surface tension” in the cell medium).
The paper reports on the study of the length of hydroplasmatic flows (HPFs) in the colonial hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758) and expands on the previously obtained results. In this study, colonies were visual scanned under a microscope, and the flow direction and saturation with food particles in each stolon module were recorded. As a result, it was established that a continuous unidirectional flow can extend along the entire distance from the base of the maternal stem to the stolon apex. Support has been obtained for a theory postulating the sequential participation of intermediate shoots in hydroplasmatic movement along the stolon and in flow formation. The movement of food particles along the stolon is possible not only by means of hydroplasmatic supply from a single source (maternal stem) but also by the sequential branching of the HPF into the shoots along the path, which activates the participation of intermediate shoots in further particle movement along the stolon.
European species of Nuphar are among the most accessible members of the basal angiosperm grade, but detailed studies using scanning electron microscopy are lacking. We provide such data and discuss them in the evolutionary context. Dorsiventral monopodial rhizomes of Nuphar bear foliage leaves and non-axillary reproductive units (RUs) arranged in a Fibonacci spiral. The direction of the phyllotaxis spiral is established in seedlings apparently environmentally and maintained through all rhizome branching events. The RUs can be located on dorsal, ventral or lateral side of the rhizome. There is no seasonality in timing of their initiation. The RUs usually form pairs in positions N and N C 2 along the ontogenetic spiral. New rhizomes appear on lateral sides of the mother rhizome. A lateral rhizome is subtended by a foliage leaf (N) and is accompanied by a RU in the position N C 2. We hypothesize a two-step process of regulation of RU/branch initiation, with the second step possibly involving environmental factors such as gravitropism. Each RU has a short stalk, 1- 2 scale-like phyllomes and a long-pedicellate flower. We support a theory that the flower is lateral to the RU axis. The five sepals initiate successively and form two whorls as 3 C 2. The sepal arrangement is not ‘intermediate’ between whorled and spiral. Mechanisms of phyllotaxis establishment differ between flowers and lateral rhizomes. Petal, stamen and carpel numbers are not precisely fixed. Petals are smaller than sepals and form a whorl. They appear first in the sectors of the outer whorl sepals. The stamen arrangement is whorled to chaotic. The merism of the androecium tends to be the same as in the corolla. Flowers with odd numbers of stamen orthostichies are found. These are interpreted as having a non-integer merism of the androecium (e.g., 14.5). Carpels form a whorl in N. lutea and normally alternate with inner whorl stamens. Sterile second whorl carpel(s) are found in some flowers of N. pumila.
Narratives, in the form of, e.g., written stories, mouth-to-mouth accounts, audiobooks, fiction movies, and media-feeds, powerfully shape the perception of reality and widely influence human decision-making. In this review, we describe findings from recent neuroimaging studies unraveling how narratives influence the human brain, thus shaping perception, cognition, emotions, and decision-making. It appears that narrative sense-making relies on default-mode network (DMN) structures of the brain, especially precuneus. Activity in precuneus further seems to differ for fictitious vs. real narratives. Notably, high inter-subject correlation (ISC) of brain activity during narrative processing seems to predict the efficacy of a narrative. Factors that enhance the ISC of brain activity during narratives include higher levels of attention, emotional arousal, and negative emotional valence. Higher levels of attentional suspense seem to co-vary with activity in the temporoparietal junction, emotional arousal with activity in dorsal attention network, and negative emotional valence with activity in DMN. Lingering after-effects of emotional narratives have been further described in DMN, amygdala, and sensory cortical areas. Finally, inter-individual differences in personality, and cultural-background related analytical and holistic thinking styles, shape ISC of brain activity during narrative perception. Together, these findings offer promising leads for future studies elucidating the effects of narratives on the human brain, and how such effects might predict the efficacy of narratives in modulating decision-making.
Admixture is increasingly being recognized as an important factor in evolutionary genetics. The distribution of genomic admixture tracts, and the resulting effects on admixture linkage disequilibrium, can be used to date the timing of admixture between species or populations. However, the theory used for such prediction assumes selective neutrality despite the fact that many famous examples of admixture involve natural selection acting for or against admixture. In this paper, we investigate the effects of positive selection on the distribution of tract lengths. We develop a theoretical framework that relies on approximating the trajectory of the selected allele using a logistic function. By numerically calculating the expected allele trajectory, we also show that the approach can be extended to cases where the logistic approximation is poor due to the effects of genetic drift. Using simulations, we show that the model is highly accurate under most scenarios. We use the model to show that positive selection on average will tend to increase the admixture tract length. However, perhaps counter-intuitively, conditional on the allele frequency at the time of sampling, positive selection will actually produce shorter expected tract lengths. We discuss the consequences of our results in interpreting the timing of the introgression of EPAS1 from Denisovans into the ancestors of Tibetans.
Host miRNAs are known as important regulators of virus replication and pathogenesis. They can interact with various viruses through several possible mechanisms including direct binding of viral RNA. Identification of human miRNAs involved in coronavirus-host interplay becomes important due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In this article we performed computational prediction of high-confidence direct interactions between miRNAs and seven human coronavirus RNAs. As a result, we identified six miRNAs (miR-21-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-3065-5p, miR-424-5p and miR-421) with high binding probability across all analyzed viruses. Further bioinformatic analysis of binding sites revealed high conservativity of miRNA binding regions within RNAs of human coronaviruses and their strains. In order to discover the entire miRNA-virus interplay we further analyzed lungs miRNome of SARS-CoV infected mice using publicly available miRNA sequencing data. We found that miRNA miR-21-3p has the largest probability of binding the human coronavirus RNAs and being dramatically up-regulated in mouse lungs during infection induced by SARS-CoV.