Forest ecosystems, their products and services play an important role in achieving ambitious climate change mitigation objectives at the same time requiring profound adaptation to climate change. Forest management schemes to support climate action have to be developed within their regional context but also have to be aligned with national or EU-level climate, forest and sustainability policies. The conference on “Managing forests in the 21st century” is the final conference of the FORMASAM, REFORCE and FOREXCLIM research projects. The conference bringstogether scientific experts on forest management from all over Europe facing very specific management challenges. The aim isto discuss and improve the understanding the role of forests and forest management in the context of climate change. The conference addresses climate change impacts, as well as needs for mitigation and adaptation especially with regard to the following scientific questions: 1. What are the impacts of climate extremes and disturbances? 2. What are the management challenges (and options) for resilient forests? 3. What can we do to increase the contribution of forest management to climate change mitigation?
This is the third book in a series on Medieval Novgorod and its surroundings and deals with a substantial body of animal bones that have been recovered over the last decade. The zooarchaeological evidence is discussed by the editor and a number of English and Russian specialists who dug the site, looking at domestic exploitation of animals, diet, animal husbandry, and butchery practices. Detailed data sets are provided to enable the reader to make comparisons with their own research, but the book is also suitable for those with a more general interest in Medieval Russian archaeology.
Cancer cells require exogenous methionine for survival and therefore methionine restriction is a promising avenue for treatment. The basis for methionine dependence in cancer cells is still not entirely clear. While the lack of the methionine salvage enzyme methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) is associated with methionine auxotrophy in cancer cells, there are other causes for tumors to require exogenous methionine. Restricting methionine by diet or by enzyme depletion, alone or in combination with certain chemotherapeutics, is a promising antitumor strategy.
This book examines how Russia, the world’s most complicated country, is governed. As it resumes its place at the centre of global affairs, the book explores Russia’s overarching strategies, and how it organizes itself (or not) in policy areas ranging from foreign policy and national security to health care, education, immigration, science, sport, agriculture, the environment and criminal justice. The book also discusses the structures and institutions on which Russia relies in order to deliver its goals in these areas of national life, as well as what’s to be done, in policy terms, to improve the country’s performance in its first post-Soviet century. Edited by Irvin Studin, the book includes contributions from a tremendous list of Russia’s leading thinkers and specialists, including Alexei Kudrin, Vladimir Mau, Alexander Auzan, Simon Kordonsky, Fyodor Lukyanov, Natalia Zubarevich and Andrey Melville.
The development and use of Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been a contentios subject for the last three decades. while there has been a number of social science analysis of the issues, this is the first book to assess the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the debate at such wide geographic scale. The various posiotions, for and against GMOs, particularly with regards to trangenic crops, articulated by NGOs in the debate are dissected, classified and juxtaposed to corresponding campaigns. these are discussed in the context of paradigms, including nature fundamentalism and the organic movement, post-colonialism, food sovereignty, anti-globalism, sustainability and feminism. This book also analyses how NGOs interprete the debate and the persuasive communication tactics.
The Paris Climate Agreement established a new target of combating global warming "well below 2 degrees Celsius". This goal will lead to the transformation and deep decarbonization of world economy aiming at nearly zero carbon emissions soon after 2050. The Northeastern Asian countries (responsible for 40% of global CO2 emissions) have all rechnological, resource and ivnestment potential for decarbonization both domestically and internationally, and can show leadership in this efforts on global scale.
The book provides the first in-depth, multidisciplinary study of reurbanization in Russia's Arctic regions, with a specific focus on new mobility patterns, and the resulting birth of new urban Arctic identities in which newcomers and labor migrants form a rising part. It is an invaluable reference for all those interested in current trends in circumpolar regions, showing how the Arctic is becoming more diverse culturally, but also more integrated into globalized trends in terms of economic development, urban sustainability, and migration.
The piblication provides the key lessons learnt from DDPP project experience on designing long-term pathways of low carbon development for 16 world largest economies. The Paris Climate Agreement requires countries to build their concrete vision of the national low-emission transition, consistent with global climate goals that would widely shared by domestic stakeholders and explicitly articulated with domestic socio-economic priorities. We analyze the experience of USA, France, Germany, Russia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, UK, Mexico, Canada, Italy, Brazil in projecting the deep decarbonization scenarios for their economies by 2050.
The book presents a brief summary of the scientific research on deep decarbonization of 16 largest economies by 2050.
This report examines the changes happening in Russia ever since the issue of global warming was introduced on the global agenda. Only today, after the planet has experienced a variety of catastrophic natural disasters, have world leaders and decision makers grown more aware of the urgency of the problem. In Russia, where climate changes have been more significant than globally on average, the government has increased its objectives in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and put forward a number of initiatives and green policy measures to achieve more sustainability in the long term. Russia’s target for greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 is set at 70-75 percent of the base level of 1990, according to the new action plan adopted by the Kremlin. Other states also recognize the problem but their positions differ in the way the issue should be solved. India, China, the U.S. and Brazil, all of which are important players analyzed in the report, find it hard to reach common ground in reaching a globally binding agreement. Whether this will be done ultimately depends on the outcome of the Paris climate change conference. The report also considers the state of the Russian climate change movement from the experience of NGO activities in Russia, provides an overview of the development of the Russian green energy sector with specific success stories and analyzes the prospects of renewable energy development in different regions of the country.
This supplementary material contains case studies presenting specific aspects of the DDPP country pathways. They illustrate and complement the cross-cutting analysis included in the 2015 DDPP synthesis report
The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) is a collaborative global research initiative seeking to understand how individual countries can transition, on a technological, socio-economic and policy “pathway”, to a low-carbon economy consistent with the internationally agreed goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to less than 2 degrees Celsius (2°C). Achieving this goal requires that the world cut global net emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) so that they approach zero between 2050 and 2075, consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)1 2014 findings that to ensure a better-than-even chance of remaining below a 2°C temperature rise, global annual emissions will need to be reduced 42%–57% by 2050 (relative to 2010), and 73%–107% by 2100. This will entail, more than any other factor, the profound transformation of energy systems through steeply reducing carbon intensity in all sectors of the economy. We call this transition “deep decarbonization” and our products, Deep Decarbonization Pathways (DDPs).
The present volume is the fourth issue of the Yearbook series entitled ‘Evolution’. The title of the present volume is ‘From Big Bang to Nanorobots’. In this way we demonstrate that all phases of evolution and Big History are covered in the articles of the present Yearbook. Several articles also present the forecasts about future development.
The main objective of our Yearbook as well as of the previous issues is the creation of a unified interdisciplinary field of research in which the scientists specializing in different disciplines could work within the framework of unified or similar paradigms, using the common terminology and searching for common rules, tendencies and regularities. At the same time for the formation of such an integrated field one should use all available opportunities: theories, laws and methods. In the present volume, a number of such approaches are used.
The volume consists of four sections: Universal Evolutionary Principles; Biosocial Evolution, Ecological Aspects, and Consciousness; Projects for the Future; In Memoriam.
This Yearbook will be useful both for those who study interdisciplinary macroproblems and for specialists working in focused directions, as well as for those who are interested in evolutionary issues of Cosmology, Biology, History, Anthropology, Economics and other areas of study. More than that, this edition will challenge and excite your vision of your own life and the new discoveries going on around us!
The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) is a collaborative initiative to understand and show how individual countries can transition to a low-carbon economy and how the world can meet the internationally agreed target of limiting the increase in global mean surface temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius (°C). Achieving the 2°C limit will require that global net emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) approach zero by the second half of the century. This will require a profound transformation of energy systems by mid-century through steep declines in carbon intensity in all sectors of the economy, a transition we call “deep decarbonization.” Successfully transitioning to a low-carbon economy will require unprecedented global cooperation, including a global cooperative effort to accelerate the development and diffusion of some key low carbon technologies.
This collection is a special issue of Russian Sociological Review dedicated to the concept of border. The concept itself seems to draw attention in many disciplines. As spatial phenomena, borders are always drawn in spaces, while social scientists, philosophers and other academics often have different meanings of space. Recent reconsiderations of space in terms of networks, flows and events, bring even more complexity to the concept. The current volume contributes to both theoretical and empirical studies of borders on various levels. Contributions look at the relevant phenomena from contemporary or historical perspectives, study narratives about borders, reconstructions of the empirical configurations of borders and other objects (such as bodies), exploring how borders emerge and reshape existing spaces, etc. Overall, the issue contributes to the emerging interdisciplinary field of border studies and encourages cross-disciplinary dialogue.
Work-book «The current state of the Russian oil and gas industry» is offered for publication as a training aid for students qualified at the direction 131000 “Oil and gas engineering”. We have described the geology of hydrocarbons, in particular - the geology of heavy oil, unconventional resources of energy, etc. In this workbook there are also methods for the development of deposits of heavy oil and produce shale oil. Special attention was given to unconventional sources of hydrocarbons, exactly, gas hydrates and clayey shale. Novelty of work-book is presentation of oil and gas terminology to students from China. This work-book is published for the first time and will be very useful for self-study students of oil and gas disciplines, as well as oil and gas terms in Russian, English and Chinese. The manuscript is classified as «Approved by UMO on Higher Education in the field of applied geology as a work book for students enrolled in the direction 131000 “Oil and Gas Engineering”».
Climate change is already having a negative impact on agricultural production in Russia, especially grain production, since this sector is perhaps the most dependent on weather and climate factors. This report presents an economic evaluation of the impact of climate change on crop production at the national level and a long-term economic evaluation of the losses, profits, and risks for agriculture throughout Russia. It analyses the situation in the two the major agricultural regions, where the negative effects of climate change are especially pronounced, and examines the prospects for adapting Russia’s agriculture to climate change
New national and regional bryophyte records, 63
The most common tools to understand perception of food products are hall tests, surveys and observations. However, these approaches require large samples to get reliable results and they are rather costly and time-consuming. Furthermore, they are also highly expert-dependent and rely on the assumption that study participants can express their preferences consciously and explicitly. In our paper, we suggest an electroencephalography- based (EEG) approach to evaluate perceived product similarity in a cross-modal taste-visual task. We tested two potential neurometrics measured from Fz electrode: the amplitude of the N400-like evoked response potentials (ERP) and the power of induced gamma oscillations during 400-600 ms period after visual stimulus presentation. Both metrics showed a strong correlation with the perceived similarity scores at both individual and group levels; however, N400-like amplitude had greater inter-subject variability making it less suitable for practical applications. The results based on the power of induced gamma oscillations (N=18) could be compared to traditional hall-tests (N=200) and may potentially reveal subtle differences in food perception that can not be captured in the hall-tests.
Snake venom α-neurotoxins, invaluable pharmacological tools, bind with high affinity to distinct subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The combinatorial high-affinity peptide (HAP), homologous to the C-loop of α1 and α7 nAChR subunits, binds biotinylated α-bungarotoxin (αBgt) with nanomolar affinity and might be a protection against snake-bites. Since there are no data on HAP interaction with other toxins, we checked its binding of α-cobratoxin (αCtx), similar to αBgt in action on nAChRs. Using radioiodinated αBgt, we confirmed a high affinity of HAP for αBgt, the complex formation is supported by mass spectrometry and gel chromatography, but only weak binding was registered with αCtx. A combination of protein intrinsic fluorescence measurements with the principal component analysis of the spectra allowed us to measure the HAP-αBgt binding constant directly (29 nM). These methods also confirmed weak HAP interaction with αCtx (>10000 nM). We attempted to enhance it by modification of HAP structure relying on the known structures of α-neurotoxins with various targets and applying molecular dynamics. A series of HAP analogues have been synthesized, HAP[L9E] analogue being considerably more potent than HAP in αCtx binding (7000 nM). The proposed combination of experimental and computational approaches appears promising for analysis of various peptide-protein interactions.
Remote nano-magneto-mechanical actuation of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by non-heating extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) is explored as a tool for non-invasive modification of bionanomaterials in pharmaceutical and medical applications. Here we study the effects of ELF MF (30-160 Hz, 8-120 kA/m) on the activity and release of a model enzyme, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) immobilized by polyion coupling on dispersed MNPs aggregates coated with poly(L-lysine)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer (s-MNPs). Such fields do not cause any considerable heating of MNPs but promote their rotating-oscillating mechanical motion that produces mechanical forces and deformations in adjacent materials. We observed the changes in the catalytic activity of immobilized SOD1 as well as its release from the s-MNPs/SOD1 polyion complex upon application of the ELF MF for 5 to 15 min. At longer exposures (25 min) the s-MNPs/SOD1 dispersion destabilizes. The bell-shaped effect of the field frequency with maximum at f = 50 Hz and saturation effect of field strength (between 30 kA/m and 120 kA/m at f = 50 Hz) are reported and explained. The findings are significant as one early indication of the nano-magneto-mechanical disruption by ELF MF of cooperative polyion complexes that are widely used for design of current functional healthcare bionanomaterials.
It follows from negative plant growth response that the solar UV-B wavelengths that penetrate the ozone layer (≥286 nm), in contrast to those absorbed (<286 nm), must leave growth inhibition fingerprints on plants. These fingerprints are expected from the growth of the Sphagnum genus, which are dominant in boreal and subarctic peatlands and have increased sensitivity to ambient UV-B. To test this hypothesis, we analysed the response of the daily growth rates of Sphagnum riparium measured over four years to solar UV radiation of 200–310 nm wavelengths recorded outside the Earth's atmosphere by SORCE satellite. We found that only wavelengths longer than 286 nm inhibit Sphagnum growth, while shorter wavelengths do not affect growth process. The data precisely correspond to the physical data on the specific wavelengths reaching the Earth’s surface. Based on the universal UVR8-dependent mechanism of UV-B perception in plants, we concluded that plants with increased UV sensitivity have indicator potential for the evaluation of the penetration of the shortest solar UV wavelengths through the ozone layer.
Some biologists and philosophers of biology claim selection can "create" novel traits. Others claim creativity is to be found only in development. I here endorse the former claim, but take seriously and address the concerns that underlie the latter. My discussion of these issues is informed by recent work that champions the "return of the organism" to mainstream evolutionary biology, and I suggest how population and organismal perspectives on trait origins can be reconciled.
One of the main disadvantages of using DNA microarrays for miRNA expression profiling is the inability of adequate comparison of expression values across different miRNAs. This leads to a large amount of miRNAs with high scores which are actually not expressed in examined samples, i.e., false positives. We propose a post-processing algorithm which performs scoring of miRNAs in the results of microarray analysis based on expression values, time of discovery of miRNA, and correlation level between the expressions of miRNA and corresponding pre-miRNA in considered samples. The algorithm was successfully validated by the comparison of the results of its application to miRNA microarray breast tumor samples with publicly available miRNA-seq breast tumor data. Additionally, we obtained possible reasons why miRNA can appear as a false positive in microarray study using paired miRNA sequencing and array data. The use of DNA microarrays for estimating miRNA expression profile is limited by several factors. One of them consists of problems with comparing expression values of different miRNAs. In this work, we show that situation can be significantly improved if some additional information is taken into consideration in a comparison.
The dynamics of three three-dimensional repressilators globally coupled by a quorum sensing mechanism was numerically studied. This number (three) of coupled repressilators is sufficient to obtain such a set of self-consistent oscillation frequencies of signal molecules in the mean field that results in the appearance of self-organized quasiperiodicity and its complex evolution over wide areas of model parameters. Numerically analyzing the invariant curves as a function of coupling strength, we observed torus doubling, three torus arising via quasiperiodic Hopf bifurcation, the emergence of resonant cycles, and secondary Neimark–Sacker bifurcation. A gradual increase in the oscillation amplitude leads to chaotizations of the tori and to the birth of weak, but multidimensional chaos.