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Of all publications in the section: 122
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Working paper
Vasilenok N., Natkhov T. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2019. No. WP BRP 220/EC/2019.
This paper examines knowledge spillovers across ethnic boundaries. Using the case of skilled German immigrants in the Russian Empire, we study technology adoption among Russian peasants. We find that distance to German settlements predicts the prevalence of heavy iron ploughs, fanning mills and wheat sowing among Russians, who traditionally ploughed with a light wooden ard and sowed rye. The main channel of technology adoption was German fairs. We show that heavy ploughs increased the labor productivity of Russian peasants. However, communication barriers precluded Russians from adopting skill-intensive occupations like blacksmithing, mechanics, carpentry, and other crafts. The results suggest that a skilled minority may enhance local development through introduction of advanced tools without transmitting their skills to a receiving society.
Added: Jun 17, 2019
Working paper
Kholodilin K., Kohl S., Прозорова Ю. В. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2018
In the shadow of homeownership and public housing, social policy through the regulation of private rental markets is a neglected and underestimated eld of social policy. This paper, therefore, presents unique new data on the development of private tenancy legislation through the binary coding of rent control, the protection of tenants from eviction, and rental housing rationing laws across more than 25 countries and 100 years. This long-run perspective reveals the dynamic eects of rent control on the rise of homeownership as the dominant tenure during the 20th century. We nd that both rent regulation and rationing legislation eectively increased homeownership, but only up to a certain threshold. We suggest that the short-term lure of an inexpensive social policy for tenants has led to the long-term marginalization of rental markets in many countries.
Added: Feb 1, 2019
Working paper
Voskoboynikov I. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2017. No. 179.
Although a productivity slowdown of the global economy was observed before 2008, it was the 2008 crisis that stimulated studies on its origins. Recent literature suggests inefficient investments in machinery, human capital and organizational processes. This includes skill mismatches and a lack of technology diffusion from advanced to laggard industries and firms. To what extent is this global view helpful in understanding recent productivity slowdown of the Russian economy? The present study reports that at least some of these origins can be observed in Russia. Using conventional industry growth accounting, it compares the pre- and post-crisis sources of growth in the Russian economy. Specifically, it represents aggregate labour productivity growth as the sum of capital deepening and total factor productivity (TFP) growth in industries, and the contribution of labour reallocation between industries. It shows that the stagnation of 2008-2014 is more an outcome of the TFP slowdown and a deterioration of the allocation of labour rather than a lack of capital inputs. The TFP slowdown started in Russia a few years before the crisis, as in other major global economies, such as OECD countries, China and Brazil. Russia demonstrated relatively stable capital deepening makes the Russian pattern similar to resource abundant Australia and Canada. Next, the contribution of information and communication capital to labour productivity growth in Russia after 2008 declined, which could have hampered technology diffusion. Finally the structure of the flow of capital services in Russia changed after 2008. Before the crisis the contribution of machinery and equipment dominated, while after the crisis construction provided the most capital inputs.
Added: Nov 14, 2017
Working paper
Skorobogatov A. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. WP BRP 149/EC/2016 .
This paper discusses a mechanism underlying the input allocations and income distributions across Russian cities of different ages. The empirical strategy is based on using the extended version of the Glaeser-Gottlieb model to guide the interpretation of regression estimates. The results are in line with previous evidence. Newer cities tend to pay higher real wages, but this is offset by the poor consumption amenities. Their opportunities to pay more are related to their productivity advantages resulting from their higher shares of skilled workforce, and more available natural resources. At the same time, these advantages and disadvantages tend to disappear with time, which gives rise to the income convergence
Added: Sep 8, 2016
Working paper
Karabekyan D. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. 130.
There are many allegations about whether FIFA world cup host countries were chosen honestly or not. We analyse the results of the FIFA Executive Committee voting and reconstruct the set of possible voting situations compatible with the results of each stage. In both elections, we identify strategic behaviour and then analyse the results for honest voting under all compatible voting situations. For the 2018 FIFA world cup election Russia is chosen for all profiles. For the 2022 elections the result depends on the preferences of the FIFA president Sepp Blatter who served as a tie-breaker. If Sepp Blatter prefers Qatar over South Korea and Japan, then Qatar would have been chosen for all profiles. Otherwise there are the possibility that South Korea or Japan would have been chosen as the 2022 host country. Another fact is that if we consider possible vote buying, then it is shown, that the bribery of at least 2 committee members would have been required to guarantee winning of Russia bid and at least 1 member for Qatar.
Added: Apr 20, 2016
Working paper
Voskoboynikov I. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2017. No. 168.
Recent decades have been years of intensive growth, structural change and expanding informality for many developing and emerging economies. However, in exploring the relationship between structural change and productivity growth, most empirical studies ignored informality. This paper explores how structural change in the Russian economy 1995–2012 affects aggregate labour productivity growth, taking into account the informal sector. Using a newly developed dataset for 34 industries and applying three alternative approaches aggregate labour productivity growth is decomposed into intra-industry and inter-industry contributions. All three approaches show that the overall contribution of structural change is growth enhancing, significant, and dumped in time. In turn, labour reallocation between the formal and informal sectors is growth reducing because of the extension of informal activities with low productivity levels. At the same time, sectoral labour reallocation effects are found to be highly sensitive to the methods.
Added: Aug 9, 2017
Working paper
Gnidchenko A. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2019. No. 218.
We propose a decomposition of weighted Theil index of export concentration into the quantity- and quality-driven terms and calculate the proposed components for 5038 product groups and 120 countries. We link our findings to the debate on the role of quality upgrading in structural transformation. The results do not support the idea that climbing quality ladders (or quality upgrading within the actually exported products) is the best way to proceed with structural transformation: for most countries, the share of the quality-driven component of weighted Theil index doesn’t exceed 20 per cent.
Added: Sep 11, 2019
Working paper
Coates D. C., Parshakov P. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. 138/EC/2016.
This study tests the implications of tournament theory using data on eSports (video game) competitions. We incorporate team production with the theory of rank order elimination tournaments since in our analysis, competitors in an elimination tournament are groups rather than individuals.  In this setting, the issue of proper incentives becomes more complicated than in the normal tournament model. Our findings demonstrate that the prize structure is convex in rank order which means that the contestants in eSports tournaments are risk averse. The results for the team games are more consistent with the tournament theory than the results for individual games. From the practical point of view, we provide decision-makers in both sports and business with the insights about the compensation design with respect to importance of the competition and its type. 
Added: Jun 3, 2016
Working paper
Tran Lam Anh D., Deseatnicov I. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2020. No. 235/EC/2020.
This paper investigates the role of technology levels in shaping the structure of the global value chain (GVC) at the macro level. We incorporate Ricardian comparative advantage into the production of intermediate goods involving both snake- and spider–type supply chains to capture the overall GVC integration. We analytically find that the country with a higher technology level produces the intermediate inputs at production stages involving a higher degree of difficulty, which is consistent with the real data. Furthermore, we verify how well the model fits the observed data by executing the calibration procedure using data from the World Input–Output Database. Our findings indicate strong correlations between calibrated outcomes and the observed data, as high as 87.3\% for the GVC participation value and 79.3\% for the real wage, proving that our model is a plausible representation of the structure of the GVC.
Added: Feb 4, 2021
Working paper
Demidova O. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 50/EC/2014.
The purpose of this study is to identify the spatial effects of the main macroeconomic indicators of the eastern and western regions of Russia. These regions differ significantly in population density and the distances between cities. The main research question we are interested in is the following: how are events occurring in one of the western regions, such as economic growth or a decrease in the unemployment rate, effecting similar indicators in other western and eastern regions. The spatial effects of the western and eastern regions, when considered separately, may differ both qualitatively and with of the ‘flow on effect’. The determinants of the same macro-economic indicators in the eastern and western regions may also differ. In order to test the hypothesis of a possible difference in the spatial effects and determinants for these regions, we have developed a special class of model with four spatial matrices (west-west, east-east, west-east, and east-west) and a double set of control variables (one for each type of region). As the macroeconomic indicators monitor the rate of unemployment in the region, the real regional wage and GRP growth for the year were chosen for our models. We controlled the variables describing the socio-demographic situation in the region, migration processes, economic development, and export-import activity in the region. The models were estimated by the Arellano-Bond method on panel data for Russian regions over 2000-2010. Our analysis revealed, 1) a positive spatial correlation of the main macroeconomic indicators for the western regions, 2) both positive and negative externalities for the eastern regions and 3) the asymmetric influence of eastern and western regions on each other. Usually “impulses” from the western regions have a positive effect on the eastern regions, but the “impulses” from the eastern regions usually do not affect the western regions.
Added: Feb 7, 2014
Working paper
Agasisti T., Abalmasova E., Shibanova E. et al. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2019
In most countries which experience structural transformation of their higher education system, a crucial goal of policy makers is to tie the amount of university public funding to their performance. This research analyzes the Russian performance-based funding (PBF) reform to provide a quasi-experimental assessment of its effects on Russian universities’ performance. Data comes from the Monitoring for HEIs performance and covers the period between 2014-15 and 2017-18. To evaluate the causal effect of the PBF policy on university performance, in a first step we define the treatment and the control groups by distinguishing universities on the basis of the trend in their performance-based allocations. In a second step, we estimated the causal effect of the redistribution of public funds across universities as a result of PBF policy. Results indicate that the performance of universities is actually affected by getting extra funding after the reform, although heterogeneity is at play. The short-run effect is related with the impact on average national exam scores, indicating that the policy forced universities to be more selective.
Added: Oct 22, 2019
Working paper
Govorun A. V. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2013
The influence of lobbying activity on economic growth and welfare is widely observed in the literature. Many scholars consider lobbying as a sort of rent-seeking and blame it for non-optimal redistribution of assets, additional costs for firms, and resource reallocation from productive activities to lobbying activities. Lobbying may result in policies and regulations that benefit a small range of firms at the cost of others. Yet some scholars argue that under some conditions lobbying may benefit society, or at least result in second-best optimality. The total outcome of lobbying should depend on how it proceeds. Although the literature on lobbying is vast and multifaceted, quite a few studies investigate how firms choose among different lobbying strategies. This study contributes to the literature by investigating how Russian firms choose ways of lobbying. The results of the study are based on a 1000-firm survey conducted by the Higher School of Economics and the Levada Center. The study investigates channels of lobbying mentioned by the respondents and focuses on the two most common channels, which are having direct contacts with officials and collective lobbying through business associations. The findings of the study are as follows. First, the data show that these lobbying channels are more likely to be complements. Second, a comparison of the effectiveness of different channels shows that the most common ways of lobbying are also the most effective. Moreover, the effectiveness of associations and personal contacts turned out to be statistically similar. Firms that have personal connections use direct personal contacts more often. But those who have problems with access to state officials tend to use business associations. Finally, the data show that those firms that interact with officials experience a higher risk of being captured by them.
Added: Feb 19, 2013
Working paper
Lukyanova A., Vishnevskaya N. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. 90/EC/2015.
In this paper, we study the minimum wage reform in Russia, which aimed to decentralize the fixing of the minimum wage and to increase the involvement of social partners in this process. The old system of the minimum wage setting was based on a single nation-wide minimum wage, which was differentiated across regions and occupations via a cumbersome framework of coefficients. The new system is a mixture of a government-legislated minimum wage at the federal level and collective agreements at regional levels. We show that the system of minimum wage setting has become more flexible. The reform succeeded in raising the real value of the minimum wage and increasing earnings of low paid workers without causing considerable negative effects in terms of employment. However, the reform did not lead to greater regional variation of minimum wages. It introduced some new imbalances: an unintended consequence of the reform was the emergence of separate regional wage sub-minima for private and public sector workers in many regions. The major challenge in coming years is to strengthen the institutions of collective bargaining, introduce evidence-based evaluation and boost the capacities of government and non-government monitoring agencies.
Added: Mar 16, 2015
Working paper
Skorobogatov A. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 63/EC/2014.
This research estimates the effect of the restriction of trading hours on the use of alcoholic beverages falling under the restriction, and to evaluate the substitution effect for the beverages not under the restriction. The hypotheses tested are that these policies decrease use of factory-made vodka and increase use of home-made vodka (samogon) and factory-made light beverages. Overall use, binge drinking, and the consumption of vodka, samogon, beer, and wine were examined. The conclusions are that the sales restrictions leads to a decrease of factory-made vodka consumption and its partial substitution by samagon for people most exposed to the restriction. A by-product of the restriction is a redistribution of alcohol market in favor of the big shops that resulted in a fall in samogon sales and rise in wine sales.
Added: Sep 29, 2014
Working paper
Aleksandrova E., Bagranova V., Gerry C. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2020
This paper provides evidence for the effects of health shocks measured by any negative change in self-assessed health (SAH) status on employment, personal income, and wages in the Russian population. We employ the average treatment effect on the treated (ATET) estimator combined with propensity score and nearest neighbour matching and data from Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-HSE (RLMS-HSE) for 2000–2018. We find that adverse health shocks are associated with a reduction in the probability of remaining employed by 2%, and losses of income and wages of 17% and 11%, respectively. For men, the consequences of health shocks are more drastic. Severe health shocks that are measured as a drop in SAH by two or more levels are associated with greater losses: respondents aged 30–45 years old lose approximately 60% of their monthly income for severe shocks, and those aged 46–72 lose 35–45% of their wages and 9–10% in the probability of remaining employed.
Added: Nov 12, 2020
Working paper
Korneeva D. V. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. 36.
  Russian producers are large participants  in  both domestic and international markets of  ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Their market power is limited on  the world market due to the  presence of competitors, while in Russia most of them have achieved an “almost monopolistic”  position strengthened by a high market share as a result protection from  import tariffs. During  1999-2011 numerous mergers in these  industries were completed and approved by the Federal  Antitrust Service – Russia’s competition agency. The key problem of merger analysis in Russia’s  ferrous and non-ferrous metal industries  is the trade-off between  a  (possible)  weakening of  competition in domestic markets and achieving competitive advantages in international markets.   Most merger deals were approved only together with precisely developed merger remedies  aimed at preventing dominance abuse. However,  it is still unknown whether the weakening of  competition and the abuse of dominance on the domestic market as the result of a merger indeed  lead to harmful consequences. Using the financial event study method developed by Eckbo and  Wier (1985), this paper empirically verifies the significance of anticompetitive effects of mergers  in  the  domestic  ferrous and non-ferrous metal markets.  I find that,  according to the financial  market, mergers between Russian metal producers restrict competition and reduce consumer  gains.     
Added: Oct 24, 2013
Working paper
Kochergina E. V., Nye J. V., Yudkevich M. M. et al. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 71.
There is now a large literature on the correlates of prenatal androgen exposure and various individual measures of performance in sports, business, or schooling.  However, still there is a relatively limited evidence on the impact of prenatal androgens on life achievement. Using data from the Russian longitudinal survey and measured digit rations, we found that age-corrected market wages are correlated with low measured 2D:4D ratios signifying higher prenatal testosterone. Unlike earlier work on non-cognitive correlates of labor market wages, our findings indicate a clear-cut optimum 2D:4D ratio for women’s wages with higher and lower 2D:4D being associated with lowered wages.  
Added: Oct 25, 2013
Working paper
Malkov E. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 65.
As Akerlof and Shiller (2009) argue, corruption and bad faith played an important role in determining the severity of each of the past recessions in the US. This paper studies the impact of robo-signing, which is a typical example of economic bad faith, on the economy and unconventional monetary policy during the last financial crisis. We modify DSGE model by Gertler and Karadi (2011) by including the features of robo-signing. The paper concludes that banks’ bad faith magnifies the financial crisis through the transmission channel related to changes of leverage of financial intermediaries and induces the central bank to conduct more aggressive unconventional monetary policy. We constitute the theoretical framework for studying the cases of economic bad faith during the last financial crisis and provide the model that well fits the actual data.
Added: Oct 25, 2013
Working paper
Sheiman I., Gerry C. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2016
Having one of the highest physician-population ratios in the world, Russia – paradoxically – also faces shortages of physicians. This paper explores the reasons for this paradox through examining the structural characteristics of the Russian health workforce and its development. In comparing Russia with mainstream European countries and in particular the ‘new” EU countries we argue that the shortage of physicians is determined mostly by the prevailing model of health workforce development with its enduring emphasis on quantitative rather than structural indicators. First, the traditional perception of physicians as inexpensive health resources determines the long-term growth of their jobs – irrespective of the new opportunities for substitution and other structural innovations. Second, there is a persistent distortion in the composition of physician supply, of which the most important is the very low share and narrow remit of primary health care providers in comparison to European standards. Third, the international trends in the division of labor between physicians, medical nurses and allied health personnel are not followed in Russia with the result of an inevitable overburden of physicians, the reproduction of a large supply of physicians, while also the paradoxical shortage. Fourth, the system of professional development of physicians does not match international standards. Although with a substantial delay, Russia has now started transition to a workforce model focused on structural characteristics of human resources and so, in the final part of the paper, these new initiatives of the Government are critically assessed.
Added: Dec 2, 2016
Working paper
Kuznetsova O., Ulyanova S. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. 155.
Added: Nov 28, 2016
Working paper
Polyakova E., Smirnykh L. I. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. 110.
Using nationally representative data (RMLS-NRU HSE) from 2004-2012, this paper examines sectoral segregation between immigrant (persons with an immigration background) and native workers and its impact on the earning differential in Russia. This is the first micro-level study in Russia about sectoral segregation and the earning gap between natives and immigrants under its influence.  In this study we analyze the determinants of the choice of sector, estimate earning differences between natives and immigrants, define the Duncan index of dissimilarity and measure the impact of sectoral segregation on the earning differential between natives and immigrants using Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition.  Our results show that sectoral segregation in the Russian labor market gradually increased from 2004 to 2012. We find there are significant earning differences between immigrants and natives. Most of this difference cannot be explained by productivity-related differences between the two groups. This implies that immigrants can experience labor market discrimination. After partly assessing the self-selection of worker’s using the extended decomposition method (Brown et al., 1980) our empirical results demonstrate that the sectoral segregation (or voluntary distribution across sectors) plays a considerable role in the earning differential between natives and migrants in Russia.
Added: Dec 1, 2015