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Of all publications in the section: 3 560
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Working paper
Чмель К. Ш., Демин А. В., Казанцев К. И. Political Science. PS. Высшая школа экономики, 2017. No. WP BRP 50/PS/2017.
Economic sanctions, like the most of political events involving numerous states, are almost always explicitly aimed to alter internal policies and affect domestic issues. Sanctions are not a discrete event, rather they are a long lasting insidious process. It is significant to consider not only the state of the country under sanctions or without them, but also the effect of the time under sanctions. Hence, the research question is as follows: How does cumulative effect of sanctions influence the dictators behavior in terms of repressions and co-optation? In order to find a feasible answer to that question, first, we build a theoretical model and draw empirical implications from it. The main argument that we develop in the paper is as follows. The overall effect of sanction is robustly important for the dictator, fostering repressions and co-optation (separately treated) as the ways of buttressing the regime legitimacy. Moreover, cumulative effect of sanctions (i.e. the influence of all the previous periods under sanctions) increases the levels of repressions with decreasing marginal effects.
Added: Oct 25, 2017
Working paper
Vladimir V. Fayer. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2012. No. 11.
This study questions a widespread opinion that Alexandrian scholars did not influence Homeric vulgate (or at least did not influence it substantially), because the overwhelming majority of their readings was  absent from the manuscript tradition of  The  Iliad. This opinion is based on the calculations of Alexandrian readings made by Thomas W. Allen, and they are demonstrably  in need of revision. If we also take into account not-attested Aristarchean readings that are cited in Martin L. West’s edition of The  Iliad,  there will  be a strong tendency for them to agree with vulgate variants.  All those  adjustments  may  seriously affect  the proportion of Aristarchus–vulgate discrepancies. Moreover, it is not impossible that our vulgate is generally identical to the Aristarchean edition of The Iliad.
Added: Jan 17, 2013
Working paper
Anna A. Bykova, Evgeniia V. Kuminova. Financial Economics. FE. Высшая школа экономики, 2013
This paper aims to contribute to the body of empirical studies that address the importance of investments in companies’ relationships and the way in which they influence value creation in the global economic crisis. We employ linear panel analysis using the Hausman–Taylor model to analyse panel data for companies from the five largest European countries in the period 2004–2011. Different types of exogenous and endogenous links which a company could have in different stages of the crisis are investigated. The findings suggest that there is a statistically significant and positive link between relational capital and a firm’s value. Moreover we identify several differences in the significance of the inputs during different crisis periods. The study provides both theoretical and practical insights into investments in intangibles for framing strategy decisions with a particular focus on the role of relational capital. This could provide scholars and practitioners with a working basis for understanding connections and the implications of strategizing in the context of a company’s networks.
Added: Nov 25, 2013
Working paper
Gusejnov G. Arbeitsheft der Forschungsstelle Osteuropa № 12. Рабочие тетради Исследовательского центра Восточной Европы в Бремене. Forschungsstelle Osteuropa and der Uni Bremen, 1996
Added: Apr 17, 2013
Working paper
Markov Y., Tiurina N., Utochkin I. S. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2018
The question whether visual working memory (VWM) stores individual features or bound objects as basic units is actively debated. Evidence exists for both feature-based and object-based storages, as well as hierarchically organized representations maintaining both types of information at different levels. One argument for feature-based storage is that features belonging to different dimensions (e.g., color and orientations) can be stored without interference suggesting independent capacities for every dimension. Here, whether the lack of crossdimensional interference reflects genuinely independent feature storages or mediated by common objects. In three experiments, participants remembered and recalled the colors and orientations of sets of objects. We independently manipulated set sizes within each feature dimension (making colors and orientations either identical or differing across objects). Critically, we assigned to-be-remembered colors and orientations either to same spatially integrated or to different spatially separated objects. We found that the precision and recall probability within each dimension was not affected be set size manipulations in a different dimension when the features belonged to integrated objects. However, manipulations with color set sizes did affect orientation memory when the features were separated. We conclude therefore that different feature dimensions can be encoded and stored independently but the advantage of the independent storages are mediated at the object-based level. This conclusion is consistent with the idea of hierarchically organized VWM.
Added: Nov 14, 2018
Working paper
Bernardi F., Boertin D., Popova D. EUI Working Paper MWP. 2014/06. European University Institute, 2014
The consequences of high divorce rates for intergenerational mobility depend on two factors. The first has been widely studied and regards the differing incidence of divorce according to socio-economic background. The second has been studied less and is the heterogeneity in the effects of divorce according to parental background. This paper investigates whether signs from earlier research that children from higher social backgrounds suffer more from divorce can indeed be interpreted as such. We follow a cohort of British children born in 1970 (N = 11,073) and look at how educational and occupational outcomes differ depending on family structure, socio-economic background, and the interaction between them. We improve on earlier studies by including a rich set of pre-divorce characteristics and are able to show that heterogeneity in the effects of divorce indeed exists and is not likely to be due to selection effects. Children whose parents are more highly educated have a larger ‘divorce penalty’ when it comes to educational and occupational attainment. A large part of the heterogeneity can be explained by the parents’ income at age 16, parental monitoring, the child’s participation in extra-curricular activities and his or her views regarding the benefits of education at age 16. The results suggest that, in contrast to the emphasis put in much recent research, divorce seems to have been a factor contributing to increased intergenerational mobility in the period under study.
Added: Aug 31, 2017
Working paper
Khoroshkin A., Willwacher T., Živković M. arxiv.org. math. Cornell University, 2014. No. 1411.2369.
We study the cohomology of complexes of ordinary (non-decorated) graphs, introduced by M. Kontsevich. We construct spectral sequences converging to zero whose first page contains the graph cohomology. In particular, these series may be used to show the existence of an infinite series of previously unknown and provably non-trivial cohomology classes, and put constraints on the structure of the graph cohomology as a whole.
Added: Dec 9, 2014
Working paper
Nazirov R., Сагдеев Р. MAX-PLANCK- INSTITUT, Preprint Series. MAX-PLANCK- INSTITUT, 1990. No. 409.
Added: Apr 1, 2013
Working paper
Valeria Ivaniushina, Alexandrov D. A. Education. EDU. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. 09.
This article analyzes student pro-school/anti-school attitudes on different levels and explores their relation to educational outcomes. We examine the individual level, school level, and clique level predictors (clique is defined as a tight social group within a class social network). Cliques were identified using special software called Kliquefinder. We use multi-level regression approach on a sample of 7300 students from 104 public schools from St.Petersburg. Our findings show that: 1.) Socio-economic differentiation of Russian schools does not lead to a polarization of pro-school/anti-school attitudes in different types of schools; 2.) The polarization of attitudes emerges and is maintained at the clique level; and, 3.) Clique attitudes have a significant impact on educational outcomes (net of a student’s socio-demographic characteristics and individual attitudes).
Added: Feb 28, 2013
Working paper
Kuzmina Y., Ivanova A., Antipkina I. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2017
The main aim of this study was to estimate direct and indirect effects of phonological ability and vocabulary knowledge on subsequent mathematics and reading performance. To achieve our goals we used two-wave longitudinal data from the international Performance Indicators in Primary Schools (iPIPS) data set, which was produced in Russia in 2015-2016. We used rhyming skills and ability to repeat words/pseudowords as indicators of phonological ability, and identified three types of mathematical skills (digit identification, number manipulations and formal math). The results of our analysis confirmed the predictive role of preschool phonological ability as a domain-general precursor of later achievements. Phonological ability had a positive direct and indirect effects on the subsequent reading and math performance. Moreover, the direct effect was higher than the indirect effect. Reading fluency mediated the effect of phonological ability and did not mediate the effect of vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary knowledge had insignificant direct effect on math achievement and positive indirect effect via phonological ability.
Added: Aug 28, 2017
Working paper
Vernikov A. V. Munich Personal RePEc Archive. University Library of Munich, 2010. No. 21373.

This paper uses the banking industry case to show that the boundaries of public property in Russia are blurred. A messy state withdrawal in 1990s left publicly funded assets beyond direct reach of official state bodies. While we identify no less than 50 state-owned banks in a broad sense, the federal government and regional authorities directly control just 4 and 12 institutions, respectively. 31 banks are indirectly state-owned, and their combined share of state-owned banks’ total assets grew from 11% to over a quarter between 2001 and 2010. The state continues to bear financial responsibility for indirectly owned banks, while it does not benefit properly from their activity through dividends nor capitalization nor policy lending. Such banks tend to act as quasi private institutions with weak corporate governance. Influential insiders (top-managers, current and former civil servants) and cronies extract their rent from control over financial flows and occasional appropriation of parts of bank equity.

Added: Sep 3, 2012
Working paper
Buchstaber V., Limonchenko I. arxiv.org. math. Cornell University, 2018. No. 1811.02221.
We develop a theory of direct families of polytopes with nontrivial Massey products
Added: Sep 29, 2019
Working paper
Smirnov S. V. Количественный анализ в экономике. WP2. Высшая школа экономики, 2011. No. 03.
The cyclical indicators approach has been used for decades but the last recession has once more rekindled an interest for them throughout the world. Several new techniques and indicators were introduced in recent years but the actual quality of these ‘newcomers‘ was not well established. During the last recession, performance of such ‘veterans’ as indexes by The Conference Board, ECRI, ISM, PhilFed, OECD, etc. has also not been checked in a comprehensive and comparable manner. Another problem with cyclical indicators is that their usage in real time has not yet been fully clarified. Contemporary global economic life is measured in days and hours, but most common economic indicators have inevitable lags of months and sometimes quarters (GDP). Is it possible for a leading indicator (which is monthly in most cases) to be timely? Moreover, the real-time picture of economic dynamics may differ in some sense from the same picture in its historical perspective, because all fluctuations receive their proper weights only in the context of the whole. Therefore, it’s important to understand whether the existing indicators are really capable of providing important information for decision-makers. In other words, could they be useful in real-time? What does the experience of the last recession tell us in this regard? This paper answers these questions for the USA as well as for Russia.
Added: Dec 26, 2012
Working paper
Lozinskaia A. M., Ozhegov E. M., Karminsky A. M. Financial Economics. FE. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. 55.
This paper investigates the distribution of relative credit losses given mortgage default for loans provided by a major government-sponsored creditor in a local area. We use borrower’s individual and loan-level data on residential mortgages originated in the period 2008–2012. Our numerical analysis indicates that mortgages bunching at certain Loan-to-Value ratios (LTV) led to a discontinuity in relative credit loss given mortgage default. Through regression analysis, we demonstrate discrete jumps in the approximated historical credit losses generated by loans with a high LTV ratios and find thresholds allowing the segmentation of loans according their credit risk. In addition, our results suggest that mortgage insurance is a potentially valuable instrument for compensation for expected loss in certain risk segments. 
Added: Jul 26, 2016
Working paper
Dmitri V. Vinogradov, Elena V. Shadrina. Working Paper 12-2018. Working Paper 12-2018 . University of Glasgow, 2018
Incentives are usually designed to promote desirable behaviour. In many instances, however, even in the absence of an incentive scheme, people may deliberately choose to act as desired. In such a case, introducing a system of incentives may discourage people from doing this. The discouragement mechanism works through the pos- sibility of errors that may wrongly classify the observed behaviour as undesirable, and hence trigger penalties. The effect is amplified by pessimism, which leads to an overestimation of the error probability, and by the disappointment from errors, which increases the disutility of unfair penalties. This approach is capable of ex- plaining two typical observations for enterprises/industries subject to environmental regulation – overcompliance (excessive investment in compliance) and discretionary inspections by regulators (raised frequency of inspections to enterprises suspected of non-compliance).
Added: Jan 15, 2019
Working paper
Schnittke E. Linguistics. WP BRP. НИУ ВШЭ, 2015. No. 20.
            The referential system of Middle Russian is notable for having in addition to the "standard" anaphoric devices—such as zero, pronominal, and nominal forms—devices that combine pronominal and nominal components, e.g. on knjaz' Mixajlo ‘he prince Mixajlo’, tot d'jakon Iov ‘that deacon Iov’. Traditionally, referring expressions of the type Pron+NP were regarded as typical of administrative language and functionally interpreted as satisfying the need for clarity and unambiguous identification of the referents. I show that in a selection of 17th-century texts these constructions are used independently of the disambiguation need. I argue that both compound constructions, Pron+NP and Dem+NP, function as markers of the referent's status at different levels of discourse. Specifically, participants who are major at the discourse level and thematic at the episode level tend to be encoded by means of Pron+NP, whereas participants who are thematic at the episode level but minor at the discourse level are usually encoded by means of Dem+NP. These facts are examined against the background of the history of pronouns and demonstratives in the Russian language.              
Added: Sep 28, 2015
Working paper
Svetlana Avdasheva, Dina Tsytsulina, Svetlana Golovanova et al. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. 26.
Many antitrust investigations in Russia continue to present a challenge for the assessment of competition policy and international enforcement ratings. On the one hand, many infringement decisions may be interpreted as an indicator of high enforcement efforts in the context of rigid competition restrictions and the significant related harm to social welfare. On the other hand, many investigations proceed under poor legal and economic standards; therefore, the impact of decisions and remedies on competition is questionable. In fact, large number of investigations may indicate the ineffectiveness of antitrust enforcement. The article explains the possible effects of antitrust enforcement in Russia. Using a unique dataset of the appeals of infringement decisions from 2008-2012, we classify the investigated cases according to their potential impact on competition. A case-level analysis reveals that the majority of cases would never be investigated under an appropriate understanding of the goals of antitrust enforcement, restrictions on competition and basic cost-benefit assessments of agency activity. There are diverse explanations for the distorted structure of enforcement, including the incompleteness and imperfection of sector-specific regulations, rules concerning citizen complaints against the executive authorities and the incentives of competition authorities. Our analysis shows that competition agencies tend to pay more attention to the investigation of cases, which requires less input and, at the same time, results in infringement decisions with a lower probability of being annulled.
Added: Apr 3, 2015
Working paper
Mironov V., Petronevich A. BOFIT Discussion Papers. DP. Bank of Finland Institute for Economies in Transition, 2015
This paper examines the problem of Dutch disease in Russia during the oil boom of the 2000s, from both the theoretical and empirical points of view. Our analysis is based on the classical model of Dutch disease by Corden and Neary (1982). We examine the relationship between changes in the real effective exchange rate of the ruble and the evolution of the Russian economic structure during the period 2002 - 2013.  We empirically test the main effects of Dutch Disease, controlling for specific features of the Russian economy, namely the large role of state-owned organizations. We estimate the resource movement and spending effects as determined by the theoretical model and find the presence of several signs of Dutch Disease: the negative impact of the real effective exchange rate on growth in the manufacturing sector, the growth of total income of workers, and the positive link between the real effective exchange rate and returns on capital in all three sectors. Although also predicted by the model and clearly observable, the shift of labor from manufacturing to services cannot be explained by ruble appreciation alone.
Added: Jan 29, 2015
Working paper
Makarov I. A. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2018. No. WP BRP 199/EC/2018.
This paper analyzes the patterns of CO2 emissions for a sample of 144 countries in the period from 1992 to 2013. Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis was tested with the help of econometric analysis for both production- and consumption-based emissions. The relationship between incomes and emissions was also examined at the level of leading national economies. The results show important distinction: while there is some evidence of decoupling between economic growth and the growth of production-based emissions at the higher level of income, consumption-based emissions continue to grow with rising incomes even in the richest countries. The further investigation is devoted to discrepancies between production and consumption EKCs which are determined by emissions embodied in international trade. Structural decomposition analysis was applied to define the contribution of different factors to the change in emissions embodied in trade with the rise of GDP per capita. While structural and technological factors are dominant in explaining this change at the low and middle level of income, the effect of volume of trade plays the key role in evolution of emissions embodied in trade in high-income countries.
Added: Oct 31, 2018
Working paper
Ivaniushina V. A., Alexandrov D. A. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 43.
In this study we focus on the influence of peers on adolescents academic achievement. Specifically, how the learning motivation of peers is related to a student's school grades. We use multilevel regression to analyze the influence of peers on different levels of social circles: school, class, personal network, and compare the effects of "assigned friends" and "chosen friends". The methods of social network analysis are used to define the personal network of a student in different ways: cliques, complete ego networks, and mutual ego networks. We demonstrate that the model improves considerably when the level of personal networks is included between individual and class levels. The learning motivation of a student's friends (defined as a clique or ego network) has an important influence on the student’s school performance, net of student’s personal characteristics.
Added: Jun 3, 2014
Working paper
Takebe T. arxiv.org. math. Cornell University, 2013. No. 1308.4584.
We show that N-variable reduction of the dispersionless BKP hierarchy is described by a Loewner type equation for the quadrant.
Added: Apr 2, 2014