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Of all publications in the section: 48
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Working paper
Khaptsova A. A., Schwartz S. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2014. No. 26/PSY/2014.
Congruence between own values and those of one’s reference groups has been found to promote life satisfaction. Actual or anticipated support or sanctions from reference others presumably explains this effect. Does the effect extend to congruence with the values of others who are similar only in socio-demographic characteristics with whom one does not interact? We constructed 36 socio-demographic groups by crossing age, gender, religion, education level, and region of residence in a representative Russian national sample (N=961). We derived value congruence scores by correlating individuals’ values with the mean values of their constructed group. Value congruence and life satisfaction correlated significantly across individuals even in these groups. The less important self-direction values to individuals, the stronger the correlation. A meta-analysis of the correlations in the 36 groups also confirmed the positive association of value congruence with life satisfaction. The characteristics used to construct the groups did not moderate this association.
Added: Dec 24, 2014
Working paper
Maklasova E., Tatarko A. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2019. No. 109.
This study investigates the role of the climato-economic characteristics of 85 Russian regions in the formation of collectivism in those territories. Based on the results of previous research, the authors suggested that in regions with harsh climatic conditions, the richer population has a lower level of collectivism, whereas the poorer population has a higher level of collectivism. For testing these theoretical assumptions, we prepared a dataset with statistical data about each Russian region for the climatic demand (based on the temperature characteristics), monetary resources (the gross regional product (GRP)) and collectivism (the population natural growth, multi-generational households, marriages, divorces, etc.). We used correlation and moderation analyses where regional climate and GRP were the predictors of collectivism. The study demonstrated that these factors predicted the level of collectivism in regions. The study also revealed the moderating role of GRP in the relation between regional climatic conditions and the level of collectivist among the population, which allows the identification of the specific and universal relationships of the indicators.
Added: Oct 22, 2019
Working paper
Bochaver Alexandra, Корзун А. Н., Polivanova K. N. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2016. No. 71.
Street activities are recognized as playing significant role in children and teenage socialization. However, the socialization mechanism of street activities is gradually changing. Active play and street gangs remain in past, as most parents today acknowledge. The present article investigates the forms of street leisure activities of Russian kids and teenagers born in different decades of late XX and early XXI centuries. The research is based on the answers of 251 participants to the two developed thematic questionnaires. Content-analysis of the answers allows to identify five principal categories of street leisure activities, namely: games, communication, exploratory activities, risk behaviors, and cultural activities. The article describes the main components of each of the categories and analyses their representation in both adult and teenage samples’ leisure time. The results allow to manifest the relation between children's leisure activities dynamics and their social environment, as regards increased social insecurity and uncertainty, urbanization rates, overpopulation, etc. The research also investigates the areas of street leisure activities, level of parental control, as well as types of rules and regulations set by parents regarding their children’s travel and leisure. The future research suggestions given the results are made.
Added: Jul 3, 2017
Working paper
Подольский Д. А. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2014
Added: Sep 25, 2014
Working paper
Kotov A. A., Kotova T. N., Vlasosova E. F. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2015. No. 38.
Children rely on contextual information, while generalizing information about new objects, since preschool age. It is still uncertain, what underlies such inductive selectivity - associative learning, which depends on the amount of features, or conceptual learning, which depends on the features’ content. In the first experiment we varied the contextual information and found that 4-5-year-olds rely more on object features of the context (shape and colour of the background), but not on spatial one (location). In the second experiment we varied the combination of context features and showed that, in the lack of object information (shape only), chidren rely on spatial feature of the context more than on object feature. Besides, they prefer not to rely on the contextual information at all if the object information was modified (same shape but different colour). Together these results indicate the dependence of the inductive selectivity on conceptual learning, but not only associative learning.
Added: Oct 20, 2015
Working paper
Lazarev I. E., Molchanova D., Novikov N. et al. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2014. No. WP BRP 28/PSY/2014.
Attentional lapses are usually viewed as a result of deterioration in cognitive control. Current theories suggest that deterioration in the cognitive control may be related to an increase in alpha rhythm power, although it is not clear whether this notion can be generalized outside of the visual task modality. In the current study power of prestimulus alpha-band oscillations was analyzed during performance of the modified auditory condensation task, which creates high attentional load. Prestimulus lower alpha-band power was found to decrease before erroneous responses, which can be viewed as attentional lapses related to decreased cognitive control, compared with correct responses. Prestimulus lower alpha-band power also gradually increased within continuous sequences of distractor stimuli separating adjacent target stimuli, thus reflecting gradual increase in the level of cognitive control mirroring increasing expectancy of the target stimuli. These findings demonstrate that the relation of alpha power to cognitive control level critically depends on the experimental task modality, and under conditions of the auditory attentional task higher alpha power may be an index of increased rather than decreased level of cognitive control.
Added: Dec 16, 2014
Working paper
Novikov N., Bryzgalov D. V., Chernyshev B. V. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2014. No. WP BRP 27/PSY/2014.
Performance errors are well studied under conditions of increased demands for motor inhibition; within this framework, errors are considered to be manifestations of motor conflicts between mutually exclusive responses to stimuli presented. However, tasks that require prolonged exertion of sustained attention and complex stimulus-response mapping may involve somewhat different internal causes of performance errors related to fluctuation in cognitive control; this aspect has not been previously addressed in literature. Specifically, it has not been studied whether performance errors can result from conflicts with spontaneous internally generated task-unrelated processes. In the present study, modulation of prestimulus brain activity in relation to spontaneous performance errors was studied during the auditory condensation task. Frontal midline theta (FMT) power, which is an indicator of cognitive control system activation, was found to be significantly higher before incorrect responses than before correct ones. Relative increase in FMT power before incorrect responses was positively correlated with Strength of excitation (STI questionnaire) and negatively correlated with the percentage of errors and with correct-to-error response time ratio. These findings allow us to suggest that the increase in the prestimulus FMT power before incorrect responses under the condensation task was at least partly related to the adjustment of the cognitive control system and conflict regulation. We speculate that the conflict may arise from interference between task-related and task-unrelated processes such as mind wandering.
Added: Dec 22, 2014
Working paper
Bultseva M. A., Lebedeva N. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2019
This research is devoted to the study of the relationship between home country intercultural experience, intercultural competence and creativity among Russian students. We assume that students from culturally heterogeneous groups or/and student having the study course dedicated to intercultural issues are more creative, as cultural diversity and cultural learning are associated with a higher level of intercultural competence, and intercultural competence may be positively related to creativity.  The sample of the first study included 72 students and the sample of the second study included 272 students of the Higher School of Economics. Creativity was measured by the indicators of creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, and originality) via "Many instances game" from the creativity test battery of M. Runco; intercultural competence was measured via scales of "Assessment of intercultural competence" create in the project of A. Fantini & A. Tirmizi. Home country intercultural experience was operationalized via presence of students from other countries in the study groups and via inclusion of Cross-Cultural Psychology course into the students’ curriculum. The results of the first study show that cultural learning in the home country institution leads to the higher levels of creativity, while cultural heterogeneity of the groups is associated with an increase in creativity only when cultural learning was applied. The results of the second study show such components of intercultural competence as attitudes and adaptability of behavior play an important role in creativity of Russian students: attitudes are positively and adaptability of behavior is negatively related to creativity.  
Added: Oct 15, 2019
Working paper
Tatiana Butenko, Schwartz S. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2013. No. 08.
The revised theory of basic individual values (Schwartz, et al. 2012) is intended to provide more powerful prediction and explanation of behavior than the original theory of ten basic values. It distinguishes 19 more narrowly defined values. These values express motivations that can be linked conceptually in a more precise manner to the motivations that presumably underlie behaviors. There is evidence that each of these newly distinguished values improves our understanding of the value bases of attitudes (Schwartz, et al. 2012). Thus far, no studies have been conducted to assess relations between the 19 values and a set of relevant behaviors. It is critical for the theory to demonstrate (or reject) that those values not present in the original theory that the revised theory distinguishes add predictive power. The paper presents results of a study of relations between 19 values and everyday behaviors conducted in Russia in 2012 to answer these issues.
Added: Mar 15, 2013
Working paper
Gracheva A. S., Ivanina E. O., Markov Y. et al. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2018. No. 96.
Subcultures frequently tend to have some distinct fashion style, which eventually becomes their “trademark” and drifts to the common knowledge of one culture or another. However, to what extent can these characteristics of certain groups be intervened with vast cultural heritage? We examined the influence of specific features of “gopnik” fashion on visual search performance. We conducted two experiments to investigate familiarity and threatening effects of these objects in visual search. Overall, our results demonstrate visual search asymmetry for man-like and gopnik-like objects, which could not be explained by basic features differences of these stimuli. We suggest that nowadays in Russia gopniks are represented as familiar group, rather than dangerous.
Added: Oct 18, 2018
Working paper
Gulevich O. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2014. No. 20.
This study explored the relation between social beliefs, organizational justice evaluation, and learning motivation. Three hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis 1 suggested that justice evaluation is negatively related to amotivation and positively related to intrinsic learning motivation. According to Hypothesis 2, dangerous and jungle world beliefs are positively related to amotivation and negatively related to intrinsic learning motivation. Hypothesis 3 suggested that the relation between social beliefs and learning motivation is moderated by organizational justice evaluation. Participants were 895 first and fourth year students of four Russian universities. They completed the ‘Dangerous World Beliefs Scale’, ‘Jungle Word Beliefs Scale’, ‘Organizational Justice Scale’ and ‘Academic Motivation Scale’. The results supported Hypotheses 1 and 2, but not Hypothesis 3
Added: Oct 22, 2014
Working paper
Merzon L., Zhulikov G., Malevich T. et al. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2018. No. 94/PSY/2018.
The leaky integrate and fire model of neural spiking has been used extensively to simulate saccadic responses in a variety of tasks from visual search to simple reaction times. Although it has been tested for its neural spiking accuracy and its spatial prediction of fixations in visual salience, it has not been well tested for its temporal accuracy. Saccade generation invariably results in a positively skewed distribution of saccadic reaction times over large numbers of samples, yet we show that the LIF algorithm tends to produce a distribution shifted to shorter fixations (in comparison with human data) in its classic implementation. Further, parameter optimization using a genetic algorithm and Nelder–Mead method does improve the fit of the resulting distribution, but is still unable to match temporal distributions of human responses in a simple visual search task. Further analysis revealed, that the LIF algorithm produces discrete reaction times instead of distributions. Aggregated over many pictures they may be treated as a distribution although the form of this distribution depends on the input images used to create it.
Added: Oct 15, 2018
Working paper
Ilyushina N., Kuzmina Y., Kaiky D. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2019. No. 107.
In this study, we aimed to estimate the effect of phonological processing in the emergence of specific maths or combined maths and reading difficulties during the first year of schooling. We also estimated whether the high level of phonological processing could be a resource for coping with math difficulties. The study was conducted on a large sample of Russian first-graders (N=3296 pupils, mean age 7.3 years, 49% of them were girls). Pupils were tested twice, at the beginning and at the end of the first grade in their level of maths performance, reading performance, phonological processing, and number recognition skills. In each test, four groups of pupils were identified regarding their level of maths and reading performance: a group with mathematical difficulties only (MD), pupils with reading difficulties only (RD), pupils with both maths and reading difficulties (MDRD) and pupils without difficulties (TD). The probability to move into the MD group, the MDRD group and in the TD group was estimated for pupils regarding their group status at Time 1 and their level of phonological processing. Results revealed that at first grade, phonological processing did not correlate with specific maths difficulties, but associated with both maths and reading difficulties. At the same time, a high level of phonological processing may prevent typically developing pupils from moving into the MD group. Moreover, a high level of phonological processing increases the probability to move into the TD group for pupils who had specific maths difficulties at the start of schooling.
Added: Jun 25, 2019
Working paper
Dulyan L. G., Utochkin I. S. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2018
Added: Nov 27, 2018
Working paper
Prusova I., Gulevich O. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2019
Psychological studies show the effect of mortality salience (MS) on attitudes and behavioral patterns in different spheres of social life, particularly, in intergroup relationships. This study examines the influence of MS on attitudes toward national outgroups. In line with terror management theory (TMT), previous studies indicate a contradictory impact of death-related thoughts. Reminders of death enhance unfavorable attitudes toward all national outgroups, however, MS reinforces the negative attitudes only toward unfriendly countries or toward those perceived as threatening. To shed light on the influence of MS, we conducted two experimental studies that were differentiated by MS manipulation and the specifics of the outgroups. In Study 1 we actualized the reminders of death through military news, whereas in Study 2 by the presentation of terrorism news (close and distant). In Study 1 (N = 180) we analyzed the impact of MS on attitudes toward Ukraine, Belarus, and Estonia. The results showed that MS mostly reinforced the unfavorable attitudes toward ‘unfriendly’ and ‘neutral’ countries. Study 2 (N = 242) focused on MS and attitudes toward Ukraine, Belarus, the USA, and China. The results indicated that MS enhanced negative attitudes toward Ukraine as an ‘unfriendly’ country. However, the close or distant terrorism-related content did not illustrate the specific influence on attitudes toward national outgroups.
Added: Feb 22, 2019
Working paper
Yuri A. Markov, Igor S. Utochkin. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2017. No. 79.
Visual working memory (VWM) is prone to interference from individual items competing for its limited capacity. At least two sources of such interference can be described: poor between-item distinctiveness (an inability to discriminate between items sharing common features) and imperfect binding (a problem with determining which of the remembered features belonged to which object). Here we investigate the links between distinctiveness and binding in VWM. In Experiment 1, we tested how object distinctiveness affects object recognition memory and memory for object-location conjunctions. In Experiment 2, we compared object-location binding under high and low distinctiveness with memory for locations when binding is not required. Object recognition decreased with low object distinctiveness, while the precision and the number of stored locations did not depend on either distinctiveness or the need for binding. However, the proportion of object-location swaps increased as object distinctiveness decreased, which might be caused by forgetting of objects. In general, our data support the idea of relatively independent object and location representations in VWM, and the independence of memory distinction and binding.
Added: Oct 6, 2017
Working paper
Kuzmina Y., Ivanova A., Kaiky D. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2018
Added: Jan 16, 2019
Working paper
Ivanchei I., Asvarisch A. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2018
This paper investigates the characteristics of the affective component in the structural mere exposure effect (SMEE). Two approaches are considered – fluency attribution approach (FA) and affect as predictive efficiency approach (APE) – within a predictive coding framework. Using the artificial grammar learning and affective priming paradigms, we demonstrate that a violation of implicitly learned regularities elicits an automatic negative affective response. This result suggests that SMEE can be observed without any overtly evaluative judgment. Participants’ decisions on the grammaticality of stimuli did not change this pattern. We conclude that SMEE is based on the affective response to prediction errors made by the cognitive system and may include the fluency attribution process in the later stages of processing.
Added: Nov 1, 2018
Working paper
Bultseva M. A., Lebedeva N. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2018
According to the scientific literature on writing, poetry and prose have their own distinct characteristics. We suppose, therefore, that the value-motivational basis for being creatively active is specific and different for poetry and prose writers. On the basis of existing studies on individual values, motivation types and creative behavior, we build hypotheses about their interrelations, specifying the differences between poetry and prose writing. The research was an empirical correlational study using questionnaires for data gathering: the revised PVQ-R of Schwartz, the authors’ questionnaire to measure frequency of creative behavior and a questionnaire on the motivation of creative behavior developed on the basis of Deci and Ryan's CBI questionnaire. The sample includes 240 representatives of “little creativity”, those involved in the non-professional writing of poetry or prose during the previous year (2016). The results show that poets and prose writers have differences in values and their relations to specific creative behavior in micro-domains of literary creativity. We also found a positive relationship between specific motivation types and the main creative behavior. We identified the mediating role of autonomous motivation between values and creativity in the poets’ group. This research demonstrates that there is sense in the division of creativity into domains and micro-domains as there are differences in the values and motivation types related to creative activities in micro-domains. 
Added: Oct 21, 2018
Working paper
Kotov A. A., Agrba L. B., Vlasosova E. F. et al. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2015. No. 35.
Subjects were given classic category formation tasks with a feedback. We used two types of categories - so called statistically dense and statistically sparse categories. We conducted two experiments to assess the influence of sign's type (experiment 1) and the interference of the redundant actions performed with the sign (experiment 2) on the performance of learning different types of categories. We found that in the case of dense categories formation, the visual distinction of the sign from other object's features is more convenient. In the case of sparse categories formation, the opportunity for easy verbalization is more important. Additionally we defined that verbal interference, directed to the actions with the sign, improves sparse categories formation, but worsens dense categories formation. The results of our experiments are discussed in accordance with the model of multiple systems of categorization (COVIS).
Added: Apr 6, 2015
Working paper
Suchkov D. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2016. No. 64.
How one perceives one’s own level of autonomy has important consequences for motivational features of goal pursuit and well-being during this process. We tested the hypothesis, inspired by Self-Determination Theory, and the Self-Concordance model, that pursuit of self-concordant goals, emanating from autonomous motivation results in an increase of well-being. This study employed a prospective design assessing several variables related to the goal: intended effort, actual effort, and progress in achieving. In accordance with the self-concordance model, these variables mediated the influence of the autonomy of the goal on well-being during the process of achievement. We replicated the model using SEM methodology, on both the US (N = 200) and the Russian (N = 410) samples. The additional modifications we made in the model kept the main logic of the previous research. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Added: Nov 25, 2016