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Of all publications in the section: 142
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Working paper
Vishlenkova E. A. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2013. No. 29.
  This article is a reconstruction of archival policies pursued by Russian universities in the nineteenth century and their effects. By comparing ‘old’ and ‘new’ archive inventories, archivists’ records and ministerial instructions, Elena Vishlenkova detects sets of documents that were destroyed in the ministerial and university archives. Furthermore, the author explains the logic of keeping certain types of documents and assigning them specific addresses within the archives. The study explains the contradictions that exist in the source evidence as well as in researchers’ conclusions, and presents hitherto unknown aspects of the university culture in the Russian Empire.
Added: May 15, 2013
Working paper
Fedyukin I. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2019. No. 185.
Education in early modern Russia has been traditionally described as imported from the West; secular; imposed by the state – or more specifically, by Peter I himself – from above on the unwilling population; driven by the  military needs, and therefore, technical. This chapter seeks to examine and to problematize some these theses. Some of them have already been re-assessed by scholars, especially insofar as the role of the church in providing education is concerned. In other cases, the discussion is limited to identifying the gaps in our current understanding and pointing to ways of addressing them. In particular, on the basis of he author's own research as well as that of other scholars, it seeks  to outline the responses of the tsar’s subjects to the educational change;  problematize the role of the “state” as an actor in this process, and that of Peter I himself; to understand what exactly is meant by the practical/military drivers of educational change and how exactly the role of these drivers could be ascertained; to emphasize the role of non-state, traditional, and informal genres and providers of education in that period. The last two sections seek to place the early modern education in Russia in the Western European context by identifying more precisely what exactly has been borrowed and how this “borrowing,” in fact, resulted in innovative reconfiguring of educational forms; and to discuss the role of early modern Russia as a pioneer, in some sense, of explicitly using education as a tool of social engineering.    
Added: Jan 30, 2020
Working paper
Korbut A. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2016. No. 130.
The article is based on the preliminary results of author’s current study of the implementation of electronic health records in one of Russian outpatient clinics. Interviews with doctors, developers, managers of the State Department of Healthcare, IT-specialists, and clinic’s head, as well as observations of doctors’ everyday work, show that one of the key problems in the transition from paper to electronic record-keeping is how new information system transforms (or fails to transform) doctors’ routine, habitual activities. The article suggests that the widespread view of habitual action as an action in accordance with a preliminary scheme — a view that forms a basis for the majority of medical information systems — does not describe the actual structure of healthcare activities. The analysis of how doctors perceive and use electronic health records in their daily practice demonstrates that a situational approach to routine actions is more adequate. For example, the use of so-called “templates” that are created by doctors within the electronic health records cannot be understood without reference to the situational context of professional activities. Doctors, creating and using various “templates,” do this in such ways that allow them to make these health records circumstantially understandable. The view of routine activities as situated, concerted achievements not only proves the possibility of a new approach to the description of habitual actions’ role and place in the structure of social action, but can be important for the design and evaluation of professional information systems.
Added: Apr 14, 2016
Working paper
Shilnikova I. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2013. No. 23/HUM/2013.
This paper examines the main measures taken to stimulate textile workers during the years of “War Communism” and the New Economic Policy and identifies the dynamics of the roles of the main elements of the labour stimulation system (compensation, coercion, and commitment). We discover what stimuli proved to be the most efficient during “War Communism” and the New Economic Policy. We analyse whether there was succession in the industrial labour stimulation system in pre-revolutionary (1880-1914) and Soviet (1918-1929) Russia and how actively Soviet managers employed the best practices of the pre-revolutionary factory administration. This paper also analyses the question of new practices introduced in the changing political and socio-economic circumstances. This paper is mainly based on archival sources.
Added: May 3, 2013
Working paper
Afanasieva A. E. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2017. No. WP BRP 145/HUM/2017.
A series of plague outbreaks that occurred in the Kazakh steppe between 1899 and 1910s, with several thousand people dead, made the region a focus of medical, state and public attention of the period. The epidemics initiated a wide-scale research on the ways of life and conditions of living of the local population, resulting in the largest amount of texts ever written on the Kazakh steppe. The region turned into an arena of cutting-edge medical research performed by the leading bacteriologists of Russia, whose findings played an important role in the development of plague epidemiology worldwide. This paper concentrates on both the scope of the measures undertaken by Russian medical administration to control the disease, and the range of explanatory theories produced by the doctors in their attempts to identify the cause of the recurrent epidemic and provide the means of its eradication.
Added: Apr 11, 2017
Working paper
Sokhan I. V. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2014. No. 48.
This article analyzes the actual gastronomic practice of fast food. Traditional gastronomic culture is undergoing transformations in the modern world. New gastronomic scares are developing that are related to an inability to predict ingredients in consumed foods. Fast food is neutral on the basis of ethnic gastronomic cultures and is becoming a prevailing eating style. As opposed to fast food, alternative gastronomic practices are becoming more essential. They bear a relation to the establishment of individual patterns, the search for and selection of new diets, care for the information aspect of food, and a need to know its cultural and historical connotations. Those gastronomic practices that appear to reflect the primitive nature of human existence are registering present and future changes in people’s ways of life in a most adequate manner.
Added: Apr 28, 2014
Working paper
Vlasova R.M., Pechenkova E., Sinitsyn V. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2013. No. 2.
The results of the previous fMRI study of word frequency effect in Russian contradicts with the results obtained in fMRI studies of English speakers. Two reasons for such inconsistency may be either task specificity (verb related task vs noun related task (tasks involving verbs vs. task involving nouns) or cross-linguistic differences. The purpose of this study was to examine fMRI correlates of word frequency in Russian using object naming task. We have found that several brain regions were more activated by retrieval of low frequency than high frequency words: fusiform gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, supplementary motor area, inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, left thalamus, left insula, right cingulate gyrus. At the same time we revealed no brain areas responding more to high frequency than low frequency words. These results are consistent with the previous fMRI studies in English. The present results also indicate the possible role of parts of speech as well as possible interactions of task and word frequency in brain mechanisms for word retrieval.
Added: Nov 18, 2013
Working paper
Gloukhov A. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2016. No. WP BRP 121/HUM/2016.
As this new reading of Plato’s Gorgias shows, four distinct positions with regard to freedom of speech are introduced in this classical text on the relations between philosophy and rhetoric: two realistic and two logical. The realism of rhetoric poses the key political problem of incommensurability between freedom and justice. The realism of philosophy is able to solve this problem, but only through a mediatory differentiation of two purely logical stands, which might have found direct counterparts in the two dominant forms of political philosophy in the 20th century. One of them is political liberalism, which corresponds to the ‘geometric’ way of argumentation in ‘Gorgias’ and inevitably passes into a theory of normative justice. Another is the mainstream ‘continental’ philosophy, which corresponds to the ‘erotic’ way of argumentation in Gorgias and explores the possibilities of the positive freedom. 
Added: Feb 11, 2016
Working paper
Lyashevskaya O. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2013
A new kind of frequency dictionary is a valuable reference for researchers and learners of Russian. It shows the grammatical profiles of nouns, adjectives and verbs, namely, the distribution of grammatical forms in the inflectional paradigm. The dictionary is based on data from the Russian National Corpus (RNC) and covers a core vocabulary (5000 most frequently used lexemes). Russian is a morphologically rich language: its noun paradigms harbor two dozen case & number forms and verb paradigms include up to 160 grammatical forms. The dictionary departs from traditional frequency lexicography in several ways: 1) word forms are arranged in paradigms, and their frequencies can be compared and ranked; 2) the dictionary is focused on the grammatical profiles of individual lexemes rather than on overall distribution of grammatical features (e.g. the fact that Future forms are used less frequently than Past forms); 3) grammatical profiles of lexical units can be compared against the mean scores of their lexico-semantic class; 4) in each part of speech or semantic class, lexemes with certain biases in grammatical profile can be easily detected (e.g. verbs used mostly in Imperative, in Past neutral, or nouns used often in plural); 5) the distribution of homonymous word forms and grammatical variants can be followed in time and within certain genres and registers. The dictionary will be a source for research in the field of Russian grammar, paradigm structure, form acquisition, grammatical semantics, as well as variation of grammatical forms. The main challenge for this initiative is the intra-paradigm and inter-paradigm homonymy of word forms in corpus data. Manual disambiguation is accurate but covers ca. 5 million words in the RNC, so the data may be sparse and possibly unreliable. Automatic disambiguation yields slightly worse results, however, a larger corpus shows more reliable data for rare word forms. A user can switch between a ‛basicʼ version which is based on a smaller collection of manually disambiguated texts, and an ‛expandedʼ version which is based on the main corpus, the newspaper corpus, the corpus of poetry and the spoken corpus (320 million words in total). The article addresses some general issues such as establishing the common basis of comparison, a level of granularity of grammatical profile, units of measurement. We suggest certain solutions related to the selection of data, corpus data processing and maintaining the online version of the frequency dictionary.
Added: May 13, 2013
Working paper
Fedyukin I. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2015
This essay focuses on debates about the proper rules and procedures of promotion in military service from Peter I’s reign and into the 1740s. It begins by considering the meaning of such peculiar Petrine innovation as selection of candidates for promotion through “elections” and the subsequent permutations of the promotion mechanism, and then moves on to analyze the discussions regarding the service obligations of the nobility culminating in the 1762 emancipation, marking official recognition by the monarchy of the nobles’ autonomous subjecthood. While debates about the rules of promotion conveniently illustrate the reconceptualization of human nature in the 18th-century Russian administrative discourse and practice, they also provide a useful opportunity for discussing how and why ideas and institutional designs evolved. Rather than portraying the rethinking of human nature as a “natural,” self-propelled process of transfer of Western European ideas, an attempt is made here to link various policy proposals and shifts to pragmatic agendas of individual officials involved.
Added: Feb 16, 2015
Working paper
Ilyin A. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2019. No. WP BRP 181/HUM/2019.
The article examines views of A.I. Herzen on emotions and their role in politics. Herzen’s position on the issue of emotions traced back to the early socialist and romantic influences and interpreted in terms of “sentimentalist emotional regime” (W. Reddy). Two discussions that involved Herzen are scrutinized. The first one was a debate of the 1840s around rationality and morals in family life where Herzen advocated middle position between unrestricted capricious emotionality and moralistic rationalism represented by Hegelian T. Rötscher. It is argued that this debate noticeably influenced Herzen’s later conceptions of politics and the public sphere that came to prominence during the reforms of Alexander II. The article shows that Herzen repeated some of his previous arguments against excessive rationalism and emotional restrictions attacking Russian Hegelian B.N. Chicherin. Herzen backed sincerity in the expression of one’s emotions both in private life and in politics, challenging prevalent notions of rationality. Chicherin, on the contrary, was a strong proponent of the neutral and rationalized political sphere since he thought emotions would lead to disturbances and revolutions Concluding remarks concern ambiguous heritage of Herzen’s views on emotions that seem to be closer to his opponents than may be immediately apparent.
Added: Oct 23, 2019
Working paper
Orlov I. B. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2019. No. WP BRP 182/HUM/2019 .
The 1980 Olympiad in Moscow (the first Olympiad in Eastern Europe and the socialist  state) is viewed through the prism of the successes and failures of the cultural and sports diplomacy of the Soviet state. Olympics-80 as a kind of mega-project "developed socialism" promoted (albeit temporarily) not only to strengthening the position of the Soviet Union in the international arena (especially in the background of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan), but also unity of Soviet citizens in the face of "Western threat". The situation was somewhat more complicated with attempts to use the Olympic project to strengthen the socialist camp.  The source base of the research was the materials of the State archive of the Russian Federation, the Russian state archive of socio-political history and the Central archive of Moscow, as well as the published documents of the Russian state archive of modern history.  It is shown that, despite the boycott of the Olympics, its consequences did not have a particularly strong impact on the development of sports ties and international tourism in the USSR. For example, in 1980, at the suggestion of the delegation of the USSR, the participants of the world conference on tourism, when adopting the Manila Declaration on world tourism, included in the Declaration all the initiatives of the Soviet delegation. And since 1982, the process of restoring international sports contacts began. 
Added: Dec 15, 2019
Working paper
Boldyrev I., Kirtchik O. I. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2013. No. 14/HUM/2013.
In this paper we address the story of developments in general equilibrium theory (GET) in the USSR during the 1970s through the lens of a single biography. The Soviet advances in mathematical economics, only fragmentarily known in the West, give an occasion to reflect on the extension of the Walrasian paradigm to non-market societies, as well as on the ideological effects of GET and its interpretations in a Soviet context. Our contribution is focused on the development of general equilibrium theorizing in the work of Victor Meerovich Polterovich (b. 1937) who has been one of the leading figures in mathematical economics and general equilibrium theory in the USSR and post-Soviet Russia. His papers on the abstract models of exchange, dynamic general equilibrium and optimal growth theory, excess demand correspondences, monotonicity of demand functions, and disequilibrium theory were for the large part published in English and gained considerable attention within the field. We reconstruct the political and ideological basis of the general equilibrium concept and show how abstract mathematical models reflected the discursive shift from optimal centralized planning to various forms of decentralization. We argue that the Soviet work on general equilibrium was a part of the global development of mathematical economics but was not integrated into it institutionally.
Added: Mar 4, 2013
Working paper
Starikova E. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2014. No. WP BRP 61/HUM/2014.
This paper is devoted to different genres of call-and-response songs in Vietnam. The call-and-response song is an antiphonal song dialogue between female and male singers. The main differences between the genres of call-and-response are related to the location and the season when they are performed. Antiphonal singing of this kind is not a distinctive feature of Viets. Similar types of singing are widely represented throughout the country among different ethnic minorities. Moreover, song dialogues are also widespread among the ethnic minorities of China and in other countries of East and South-East Asia. In Vietnam these genres have become extremely popular and exist in a variety of forms  
Added: Sep 22, 2014
Working paper
Polivanova D. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2013. No. 33/HUM/2013.
This paper discusses the use of the dactylic ending in the poetry by Nikolay Nekrasov and Boris Pasternak. It describes in succession the parts of speech dactylic endings utilize, the grammatical forms they take, and the derivational affixes they consist of. Comparison of the current results with the accent characteristics of Russian words illustrates the extent to which the choice of a particular word is determined by the inflectional and derivational language possibilities. Finally, an internal comparison of Pasternak’s and Nekrasov’s grammatical features demonstrates the distinctive features of each author’s poetic language.
Added: May 24, 2013
Working paper
Boldyrev I., Herrmann-Pillath C. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2012. No. 05.
This paper explores the implications of the recent revival of Hegel studies for the philosophy of economics. We argue that Hegel’s theory of Objective Spirit anticipates many elements of modern approaches in cognitive sciences and of the philosophy of mind, which adopt an externalist framework. In particular, Hegel pre-empts the theories of social and distributed cognition. The pivotal elements of Hegelian social ontology are the continuity thesis, the performativity thesis, and the recognition thesis, which, when taken together, imply that all mental processes are essentially dependent on externalizations, with the underlying pattern of actions being performative. In turn, performative action is impossible without mutual recognition in an intersubjective domain. We demonstrate the implications for economic theory in sketching an externalist approach to institutions and preferences.
Added: Aug 27, 2012
Working paper
Gloukhov A. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2014
The rebirth of communism, as shown by a new wave of publications (A. Badiou, B. Groys, S.Žižek), disqualifies the historical peculiarity of the Soviet experience in favor of the eternal “idea of communism”, originating in the works of the Ancient Greek philosopher, Plato. It is an ironic reversal of the fates suffered by the studies of Antiquity after the Russian Revolution. Apparently, the present day supra-historical idealism and the old school historical materialism exclude each other. On the other hand, an analysis of Soviet cultural politics from the 1920-30s may demonstrate that those radical theoretical stances were presented as distinct practical phases in the same changing experience of communism. A repudiation of the Soviet past brings for the current rebirth of communism nothing other than the hiding of ugly practical problems behind theoretical purity.
Added: Sep 11, 2014
Working paper
Osminskaya N. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2014. No. WP BRP 40/HUM/2014.
This paper analyses different retrospective links between the scientia generalis by Leibniz and the philosophical, rhetorical and encyclopaedic traditions of the Renaissance and Early Modern Europe, emphasising the influence of Aristotle’s’ “Metaphysics” on the genesis of  the concept of universal science in 17th century philosophy.
Added: Mar 3, 2014
Working paper
Ivanova J. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2014. No. WP BRP 51/HUM/2014.
The article deals with the epistemological background of the early modern theories of sociability: taking as a starting point the ‘prudential theorems’ from the sixth chapter of Hobbes’ Leviathan, the author examines in consecutive order the Cartesian foundations of sociability in Samuel Pufendorf’s theory of the natural right, the sensualist scienza del commercio of Celestino Galiani, and the refutation of both Cartesian ‘hypothetical metaphysics’ and ‘politics of merchants’ on the grounds of ‘practical Platonism’ by Paolo Mattia Doria.
Added: Apr 30, 2014
Working paper
Kholodilin K. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2017. No. WP BRP 151/HUM/2017.
ruins of the Russian Empire during the Russian Civil war in 1918-1922. It examines and compares three major tools of the housing policy of those times: rent control, protection of tenants from eviction, and housing rationing. It shows evolution and continuity of the housing legislation of the non-Bolshevik governments and its relationship with the housing policies of Bolsheviks.
Added: Oct 16, 2017
Working paper
Dadykina M., Kraikovski A., Lajus J. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2015. No. 117.
The Russian hunters used to kill animals in the Arctic long before the 18th c. However, the Petrine modernization has changed their life strongly. The Government has put the new goals in order to make the Russian blubber industry some kind of a driving force for the Europeanization of the enormous region of the Russian North. However, what were the economic and political contexts for that? And could this governmental project be successful at all?
Added: Jan 8, 2016