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Of all publications in the section: 122
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Working paper
Roshchin S., Travkin P. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2017
Purpose The present paper aims to determine the influence of various enterprise characteristics on job-related training. The paper focuses mainly on identifying the influence of a firm’s innovative activity, technological capacity for manufacturing and product market competition on its likelihood of having a training program and on training intensity. Design/methodology/approach The authors administered a firm-level survey to a sample of 2000 Russian enterprises. This survey includes questions about job-related training and key information about the companies’ activities. Probit estimates (including a multiple choice model) are used in the statistical analyses. Findings The results indicate that an enterprise’s provision of training is determined largely by firm-specific factors, such as its innovative activity, technical and technological state of manufacturing and product market competition. The authors adopt two widely used measures of training: incidence and intensity. Innovative activity and the technical and technological state of manufacturing are decisive factors in explaining a firm’s provision of training, as they have a strictly positive effect on both the incidence and the intensity of training. Product market competition has a positive effect on the incidence of training and a negative effect on the intensity of training. Originality/value This paper is original because it assumes that the process of deciding whether to implement a training program at an enterprise and the corresponding proportion of employees involved in training is built on the presupposition that the training intensity decision is made in two stages. This paper is the first to present estimates of job-related training intensity based on data from Russian enterprises.
Added: Oct 31, 2017
Working paper
Makarov I. A. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2018. No. WP BRP 199/EC/2018.
This paper analyzes the patterns of CO2 emissions for a sample of 144 countries in the period from 1992 to 2013. Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis was tested with the help of econometric analysis for both production- and consumption-based emissions. The relationship between incomes and emissions was also examined at the level of leading national economies. The results show important distinction: while there is some evidence of decoupling between economic growth and the growth of production-based emissions at the higher level of income, consumption-based emissions continue to grow with rising incomes even in the richest countries. The further investigation is devoted to discrepancies between production and consumption EKCs which are determined by emissions embodied in international trade. Structural decomposition analysis was applied to define the contribution of different factors to the change in emissions embodied in trade with the rise of GDP per capita. While structural and technological factors are dominant in explaining this change at the low and middle level of income, the effect of volume of trade plays the key role in evolution of emissions embodied in trade in high-income countries.
Added: Oct 31, 2018
Working paper
Kokovin S. G., Nahata B., Zhelobodko E. V. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 83/EC/2014 .
This article describes ways to use original texts in the National Russian Corpus as well as news texts for teaching Russian as a foreign language. Two-year work of a scientific group of Higher School of Economics (Nizhny Novgorod-Moscow), which is called CorpLings is analyzed. Special attention is paid to the basic principles of research part of the project – automatic adaptation of acute news texts. We also describe ways to simplify structures, which seem difficult for students at the elementary level, from the point of view of their syntactic and morphological structure. Stages, needed for lexical simplification are described in detail. Among them there are creation of an algorithm to find the most appropriate synonyms, based on morphological rules, and analysis of a statistical model of contextual proximity of words. The article also addresses the difficulties faced by developers and the final result of research
Added: Dec 17, 2014
Working paper
Sokolova A., Havránek T. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. 137/EC/2016.
We show that three factors combine to explain the mean excess sensitivity reported in studies estimating consumption Euler equations: the use of macro data, publication bias, and liquidity constraints. When micro data are used, publication bias is corrected for, and the households under examination do not face liquidity constraints, the literature implies no evidence for the excess sensitivity of consumption to income. Hence little remains for pure rule-of-thumb behavior. The results hold when we control for 45 additional variables reflecting the methods employed by researchers and use Bayesian model averaging to account for model uncertainty. The estimates of excess sensitivity are also systematically aff ected by the order of approximation of the Euler equation, the treatment of non-separability between consumption and leisure, and the choice of proxy for consumption.
Added: Jun 8, 2016
Working paper
Penikas H. I., Selmier II W. T. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. 15.
This essay aims at highlighting the linkage between current international banking regulation (namely, that produced by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision) and economic activity, which is proxied by the S&P500 stock market index. It is revealed that the amount of regulatory documents published per year affects stock market performance, but only for the next two years. Discussion on the probable reasons for this is included.
Added: Aug 17, 2013
Working paper
Polyachenko S. S., Nye J. V. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. 40.
There is a worldwide tendency for more educated people to trust in markets, private business, and trade, and to distrust government regulation and public provision relative to the less educated even in countries where people generally favor regulation (Aghion, et al. 2010). Individual survey data drawn from the Russian RMLS indicate that for Russia, as for most of the world, respondents with higher levels of education are more likely to trust private businesses and privatization, to distrust government regulation, and to favor lesser provision of services by the State (vs. the private sector). This matches the macro survey findings of Aghion et al. (2010) for the transition economies and the work of Caplan (2001, 2002, 2007). However, it is not clear whether education is a causal factor in these preferences or whether education is proxying for different levels of cognitive ability, health, or other forms of human capital. We use individual height data as instruments for formal education to remove the contemporaneous effects of schooling itself on the education-trust link. We find that this IV estimation leaves us with clear and persistent links between education and market friendly attitudes in Russia. This human capital effect is also quite independent of the role of age in determining liberal attitudes and is not simply a cohort effect. This seems to conform to the worldwide observation that – whatever the independent changing institutions – greater health and cognitive ability seem to promote market liberal beliefs in and of themselves. In contrast, socially liberal attitudes are not correlated with education in the IV regressions.
Added: Dec 13, 2013
Working paper
Bruhanov M., Nye J., Polyachenko S. S. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2016
Does the educational process itself transform an individual’s world outlook towards pro-market values in transition? Much evidence indicates that education correlates with liberal values. However, it is not clear whether this association is the result of selection into education or whether education itself makes people liberal as education and liberal values both are linked to unobservable characteristics such as cognitive abilities, household traits, and the social environment, implying biased ordinary least squares estimates. We employ unique data from 2 waves of the Russian Longitudinal Measurement Survey (RLMS) which contains individual attitudes towards government price control. To overcome the issue of the mutual correlation of liberal values, education, and predetermined and time stable characteristics (fixed effects), we use regressions in first-differences. A negative link between obtaining higher education and support for government price control is documented. The results are also robust to different indicators of the dependent variable and for different sub-samples. Additionally, based on a cross-section sample, we provide evidence that the psychodynamic channel of educational impact on pro-market attitudes is important: white-collar occupations can be considered as insurance against possible market price shocks. The liberal effect of education shows the importance of research on educational policy in the process of the formation of pro-market attitudes in Russia and in other transition economies.
Added: Aug 23, 2016
Working paper
Vakulenko E. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 53.
We analyze the impact of migration on wage, income and the unemployment rate. Using the official Russian statistical database from 1995 to 2010, we calculate a dynamic panel data model with spatial effects. There is a positive spatial effect for wage, income and unemployment rate. There is no significant impact of migration on the unemployment rate. We find a negative relationship between net internal migration and both wages and income, which is explained by the positive effect of emigration and negative effect of immigration for income. However, the migration benefits are not big enough to make a difference on the Gini index across regions.  We conclude that migration does not affect the regional sigma-convergence of economic indicators.
Added: Feb 14, 2014
Working paper
Rozhkova K., Roshchin S., Roshchina Y. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2021. No. 242.
Economic and sociological research that touches upon the determinants of alcohol consumption is mostly centered on the traditional factors of human capital (e.g., education). While much attention is given to education as a valid instrument to reduce alcohol misuse, less is given to the impact of non-cognitive skills. Data are collected from a nationally representative Russian panel survey, 2016–2018. We estimate a random-effects probit model for the probability of abstinence and a random-effects tobit model with a Heckman correction for the volume of alcohol consumption. Non-cognitive skills are consistent predictors of drinking in Russia. In both genders, conscientiousness and extraversion have strong connections to the probability and the volume of alcohol consumption, while openness to experience and neuroticism only affect the volume. The estimates for education differ substantially when the Big Five variables are excluded from the model, which suggests that a major part of the effect of education on alcohol consumption patterns may be mediated through non-cognitive skills. Although educational interventions are often seen as a method of solving excessive drinking problems, introducing personality traits into the analysis raises the question of the effectiveness of such interventions.
Added: Jan 19, 2021
Working paper
Larin A. V. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 86/EC/2014.
This paper investigates the sources of the downward nominal wage rigidity in Russia. The empirical analysis is based on the RLMS-HSE household survey from 2004 to 2013. We show that, in spite of weak labor unions in Russia, the extent of downward nominal wage rigidity is high. Moreover, the probability of a wage freeze is decreasing in rm size and is lower for industries with industry-level tari agreements. Our ndings present empirical evidence that the main source of the downward nominal wage rigidity is not the labor unions, but rms' voluntary decision to prevent wage cuts, which may cause quits of valuable employees and/or a decrease in their eorts
Added: Dec 29, 2014
Working paper
Lukyanova A. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. 37/EC/2013.
In this paper I investigate the impact of informality on earnings inequality in Russia using RLMS-HSE data for 2000-2010. I find that during the whole period earnings inequality was substantially higher in the informal sector. Informality increases earnings polarization, thereby widening both tails of the distribution. Changes in the earning distribution of the formal sector were mainly generated by changes in the distribution of hourly earnings. In the informal sector, reduction of inequality occurred via two channels: Differences in hourly rates and working hours both declined. Changes in the structure of informality and conditional wage differentials did not have a significant impact on the overall earnings inequality, with the exception of decline in irregular employment.
Added: Nov 6, 2013
Working paper
Павлова Н. С., Shastitko A. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 58/EC/2014.
The article focuses on the effects that type I errors can have on the incentives of firms to compete, collude or engage in efficiency promoting socially beneficial cooperation. Our results confirm that in the presence of type I errors the introduction of a leniency program can have ambiguous effects, including the destruction and prevention of welfare enhancing horizontal cooperation agreements. The obtained results help understand the negative impact the hostility tradition resulting in type I enforcement errors can have on social welfare when applied to the regulation of horizontal agreements.
Added: Sep 28, 2014
Working paper
Orlov D., Ozhegov E. M. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. WP BRP 96/EC/2015.
Film industry has been under investigation from social scientists for the last 30 years. A lot of the work has been dedicated to the analysis of the sequel effect on film revenue. The current paper employs data on wide releases in the US from 2010 to 2014 and provides a new look at sequel return to the domestic box office. We apply the Heckman and nonparametric sample selection approach in order to control for the non-random nature of the sequels’ sample. It was found that sequels are successful only due to the fame of the first part of the series. If the sample selection is taken into control, sequels do not excel one part movies in terms of the box office. Moreover, decomposing the main factors of sequels’ overearnings compared to one part movies, we found that sequels have a less competitive environment, a higher production budget, more time being in release and the number of opened theatres
Added: Jun 25, 2015
Working paper
Gimpelson V. E., Lukyanova A., Sharunina A. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. 104/EC/2015.
The paper explores the public-private wage gap in the Russian economy along the whole wage distribution. Using RLM-HSE data set, it examines how gaps at various points of the distribution changed over time during 2000-2014 and presents decompositions of the gaps into components explained by differences in characteristics and differences in returns. The results suggest that the gap persists over time and varies along the wage distribution. During the 2000s low skilled public sector workers had smaller pay gaps than those higher skilled had. Governmental policy interventions and the economic crisis of 2008-2009 contributed to the narrowing of the gap and its partial equalization along the distribution. New set of policy changes associated with the May 2012 Presidential Decrees strengthened these tendencies but did not eliminate the gaps.
Added: Oct 20, 2015
Working paper
Klepikova E. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. WP BRP 100/EC/2015.
This paper provides an analysis of the labor supply of Russian people in pensionable age. It aims to answer two questions: (1) whether bad health is an important limitation for labor activity and (2) whether a greater pension benefit could be a stimulus for delayed retirement. This is an empirical work based on data of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey - Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE) from 2000-2010. Findings suggest that the most important factor of labor supply is income, and it is more significant for people with higher education. Bad health contributes to leaving the labor force, but the effect is smaller than income’. Some policy implications are also suggested based on the empirical results of the study
Added: Oct 13, 2015
Working paper
Kossova T. V., Kossova E. V., Sheluntcova M. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. WP BRP 45/EC/2013.
This paper aims to reveal the relationship between rate of time preferences (RTP) and healthy lifestyles of Russians. This rate shows individual preferences for the distribution of consumption over time. We examine such healthy and unhealthy behavior as smoking, drinking alcohol, doing physical exercise and having medical check-ups. The research is based on data from a survey which was conducted by the Yuri Levada Analytical Center in 2011. Our findings suggest that the RTP along with such factors as age, gender, marital status, income, health status and employment status influence the lifestyle of Russians
Added: Dec 26, 2013
Working paper
Ivashchenko S. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. WP BRP 136/EC/2016 .
This article suggests and compares the properties of some nonlinear Markov-switching filters. Two of them are sigma point filters: the Markov switching central difference Kalman filter (MSCDKF) and MSCDKFA. Two of them are Gaussian assumed filters: Markov switching quadratic Kalman filter (MSQKF) and MSQKFA. A small scale financial MS-DSGE model is used for tests. MSQKF greatly outperforms other filters in terms of computational costs. It also is the first or the second best according to most tests of filtering quality (including the quality of quasi-maximum likelihood estimation with use of a filter, RMSE and LPS of unobserved variables).
Added: May 20, 2016
Working paper
Novak A., Larin A. V., Khvostova I. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 52.
This paper presents estimates for the consumption Euler equation for Russia. The estimation is based on micro-level panel data and accounts for the preference heterogeneity, measurement errors, and the impact of macroeconomic shocks. The presence of multiplicative habits is checked with the LM-test in a GMM framework. We obtain estimates of the elasticity of intertemporal substitution and of the subjective discount factor, which are consistent with the theoretical model and can be used for calibration, as well as for a Bayesian estimation of DSGE models for the Russian economy. We also show that the effects of habit formation are not significant. The hypotheses on habits (external, internal, and both external and internal) are not supported by the data
Added: Feb 11, 2014
Working paper
Isakov K., Pekarski S. E. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. 113/EC/2015.
  We use simple calibrated general equilibrium model to evaluate the revenue from financial repression and its impact on Laffer curves for consumption, capital and labor taxes. By imposing requirement for households to hold public debt with below-market rate of return the government distorts optimal household’s allocation and raises extra revenues. Tighter financial repression shifts Laffer curves for labor and consumption down, but increases revenue from capital income taxation. Total budget revenue increases, which allows financing more public goods that can be welfare-improving.
Added: Nov 26, 2015
Working paper
Kholodilin K., Крылова И. А., Kryutchenko D. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2017. No. WP BRP 165/EC/2017.
In the urban economics, the distribution of people and real estate prices depends on the location of the central business district. As distance from the city center increases, both prices and population density diminish, for travel costs increase in terms of time and money. As manufacturing gradually leaves the cities, the importance of consumer amenities as attractors of population to the urban areas increases. The role of the business center is being taken over by the consumer center. This paper identifies the location of the consumer center of St. Petersburg - the second largest city in Russia and its former capital. For this purpose using data from open sources on the Internet regarding the location of different types of urban amenities, the indices of their spatial density are computed. Using weights based on coefficients of spatial variation and surveys, the individual indices are aggregated to two general centrality indices. Their unique maxima correspond to the city center of St. Petersburg, which is located on Nevsky prospekt, between Fontanka river and Liteinyi prospekt.
Added: Jul 4, 2017
Working paper
Marques II I. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 87.
  When does business support the expansion of socialpolicy in the developing world? Existing work on managers preferences has tended to concentrate on the developed world, where governments can credibly commit  to  policy, tax evasion is constrained, and mechanisms exist  to hold  the bureaucracy  accountable for  policy  implementation. In  this paper, I relax these assumptions, arguing that weak  institutions  create opportunities  for some firms to shift costs onto others: making social policy more attractive.  I argue that firms with political connections are uniquely positioned to benefit from subsidies and property rights protection, which decreases the cost of social  policy, while firms  with low visibility can evade taxes and free-ride off universalistic social policy. I test this argument using a survey of 666 firms in 10 Russian regions. 
Added: Feb 19, 2015