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Of all publications in the section: 20
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Working paper
Lola I. S., Gluzdovsky S. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2018. No. WP BRP 90/STI/2018.
This paper expands the existing informational and analytical opportunities of application of the results of business tendency surveys which solve the problem of the loss of valuable statistical information in its traditional aggregation into simple and composite indicators. Based on methods of multidimensional classification, an algorithm of statistical analysis significantly raises the analytical opportunities for the more wide measurement of trajectories of development and short-term fluctuations of branch of the information technology (IT) is developed and discussed. This allows the construction of behavioral models of business tendency data which improve the understanding of the business cycle in more detail. Furthermore the empirical results confirm the possibility of receiving various information which increases the analytical potential of business tendency surveys.
Added: Nov 22, 2018
Working paper
Proskuryakova L. N., Meissner D. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2014. No. 26.
The paper offers a taxonomy of the technology platforms (TPs) to help assess a platform’s risk level. TPs are seen as a valuable policy instrument that assists a multi-stakeholder formulation and implementation of long-term R&D programs in specific technology areas at economy or industry level. The TPs analysis and the taxonomy are based on the industrial economic perspective and contribute to defining and implementing technology platforms above the company level. In practical terms the results of the study may be used by policy-makers in designing the R&D support measures. Moreover, the paper clarifies the role of TPs in the science, technology and innovation policy mix. The authors trace the evolution of the ‘technology platform’ concept from an instrument used by companies for R&D and innovation management towards a policy instrument used for technology and economic development at national and international levels. The authors propose a theoretical approach to TPs as a science, technology and innovation policy concept. Furthermore the paper offers a case-study of Russia’s newly established Technology Platforms 
Added: Apr 22, 2014
Working paper
Liudmila Kitrar, Tamara Lipkind. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2019. No. 96/STI/2019.
The paper presents the Business Climate Indicator (BCI) in the Russian manufacturing including the medium and high-tech (MHT) manufacturing industries. The authors explain the feasibility of a new alternative measure that summarizes common information of business tendency surveys cleared up of specific fluctuations in individual variables, and give arguments to prove its effectiveness. The resulting BCI reflects the quantitative changes in manufacturing growth more accurately and with a lead compared to the traditional confidence indicator. Identification of the BCI cyclic profile and its visualization through a tracer demonstrate all significant waves of manufacturers’ optimism and pessimism for the period from January 2005 to January 2019. To construct BCI-MHT, the units of observation and the input information are divided into three groups according to the technological level of industries. The dynamics of BCI-MHT is close to those of BCI; however, during the protracted recession in 2016-2018, the sentiments of manufacturers of medium- and high-tech products were less pessimistic compared with the sentiments of all manufacturers.
Added: Aug 26, 2019
Working paper
Demianova A. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2018. No. 91/STI/2018.
Added: Oct 18, 2018
Working paper
Gordin V. A., Bykov P. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2015
This paper presents a method and computational technology for forecasting ambulance trips. We used statistical information about the number of the trips in 2009-2013, the meteorological archive, and the corresponding archive of the meteorological forecasts for the same period. We take into account social and meteorological predictors simultaneously. The method may be used operatively for planning in the ambulance service. It may be applied for all trips and for specific subgroups of diseases. The method and the technology may be applied for any megalopolis if the corresponding medical and meteorological information is available.
Added: Mar 29, 2015
Working paper
Milshina Y., Vishnevskiy K., Pavlova D. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2019
Manufacturing today is undergoing fast and fundamental changes due to the introduction of Industry 4.0 technologies. Still, the effects of their applications on the global economic and social structure (in terms of risks and benefits) are highly uncertain. This paper is aimed to suggest a special methodology for conducting industry foresight based on timelines construction, which reflects future vision of technological development, and wild cards detection, which represents an advanced technique for technological trends risk management. In this way, we analyze the existing practices of timelines building and wild cards analysis for industry purposes in the academic literature, and suggest own methodology for conducting industry foresight by using these tools. To demonstrate its application, we choose a particular industry with great potential for technological innovation and high degree of uncertainty – the textile and apparel industry. Finally, we discuss future development of this industry at a national level in the context of global technological trends.
Added: Nov 29, 2019
Working paper
Fursov K., Thurner T. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2016. No. 59.
 This paper studies the specificities of Russian user-innovators on a sample of 1670 home interviews. The percentage of end users who innovate in their daily life in the Russian population and the willingness to share one’s ideas and developments is much higher in comparison to western countries and probably historically rooted in long-standing community activities which spread during soviet times. Our data suggests the existence of two different groups of user- innovators: one group of urban, male, well educated, and financially better-situated individuals who innovate for career reasons (or for fun) vs. a much more diverse group of small town folks who innovate out of necessity. While the first group confirms findings well described in the literature, the second group seems to be unique to developing markets and to Russia in particular. User-innovation happens also in remote areas, and among user groups outside of the working age. As these user-innovators are reluctant to share their innovations with others and would rather keep them for themselves, a great source of ideas and commercial opportunity remains untouched. Russia’s innovation system has so far concentrated on the classical innovation modes around major cities or big companies. Given Russia’s extensive presence of user-innovators, it might be a promising policy move to provide greater support to existing and emerging amateur communities. We believe that our study adds insights into the informal and totally neglected viewpoint on Russia’s innovation.    
Added: Jun 21, 2016
Working paper
Chernovich E., Polyakova V. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2014. No. 30.
This paper investigates the innovation activity in an amateur community. It implements the case study method to analyze the intensive innovation creation process that was going on in the whitewater paddling community during the last two decades of the twentieth century. We apply the notion innovative agency to get a deeper understating of the process of innovation creation, and to identify all actors of innovation. Further we trace the process of innovative agency delegation between actors. We find out that two radical innovations and many incremental innovations emerged in this community. We conclude that their emergence was shaped by creative and competitive environment of the whitewater paddling community.
Added: Oct 22, 2014
Working paper
Bereznoy A. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2018. No. 85/STI/2018.
The paper investigates the growing role of business model innovation (BMI) as a key instrument of strategic adaptation of Western multinationals in emerging economies. Despite an abundance of studies on BMI, prior works have paid little attention to how specific characteristics of emerging economy environment force MNEs to change their business models. In order to fill this gap the author developed an analytical framework allowing to trace potential directions of this changing impact, and suggested a typological classification of respective innovative business models responding to concrete challenges posed by emerging economies to MNEs. The author also concludes that the growing BMI activities in emerging economies entail very serious implications for MNEs’ strategy and organization and innovation governance mechanisms which are increasingly required to enhance their abilities to support multiple business models adapted to specific environment in all major host countries.
Added: Oct 8, 2018
Working paper
Lola I. S., Bakeev M. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2019. No. WP BRP 95/STI/2019.
The spread of digital technologies changes production processes and business models, which has important effects for diversification of the economy. The fourth industrial revolution and the Industrial Internet of Things open up new opportunities for the introduction of technologies, having a significant impact on the production cycle, starting with highly automated production lines and ending with the large-scale implementation of technological solutions designed to improve productivity, optimize costs, quality and reliability. Defining digital transformations, primarily in the manufacturing industry as a strategic imperative for the entire economy, for the first time, based on opinions and intentions of entrepreneurs (short and medium-term), key aspects of the digitalization process in Russian medium, high-tech and low-tech manufacturing industries are revealed. A set of tendencies in the development of digital technologies by their main types is presented, the level of industry participation in digital transformation is shown, as well as many other important digital transformation processes in enterprises that are not measured by quantitative statistics. For all the studied industries, factors hindering digital transformation are identified and ranked.
Added: Aug 8, 2019
Working paper
Nefedova A. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2015. No. 51.
This Article gives an overview of different approaches to the definition of social entrepreneurship and contains the findings of the survey on the organizational field of social entrepreneurship that emerges in Russia. Whereas this type of business is institutionalized in the economy of the U.S. and certain European nations, where special laws are developed for it and significant tax benefits are afforded in certain cases, it is in an infant state in the Russian society.  Its progress in the Russian economy will largely depend on the actions taken by the players in the emerging organizational field, not only on socio-economic and historical conditions. A series of expert interviews at the first study stage resulted in identification of the main players, in particular, Our Future – the foundation for regional social programs that served as the monopolistic source of financial support for social entrepreneurship during the study. To find out what social entrepreneurship model is taking shape in Russia, 186 applications filled by different organizations for support to social entrepreneurship financing were reviewed in three years of the Foundation’s business. The review suggested that the Foundation mostly backs up the social programs capable of becoming financially independent from external sources.
Added: Dec 1, 2015
Working paper
Савелькаева А. С., Polyakova V., Fursov K. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2015. No. 52.
Attitudes towards science and technology has been drawing the attention of many researchers focusing their search on specific aspects of public understanding of science, measuring risk perception associated with the development and wider dissemination of new technologies, engagement in decision making about controversial research issues. While some authors prefer to focus on the prevalence of particular attitudes towards S&T, trying to explain the differences between countries by variances in their economic development, others search for specific individual factors underpinning their development like values or beliefs. In our paper, we attempt to bring together these perspectives and comprehensively analyze both individual and national factors that define public opinion on S&T by considering the example of the attitude that characterizes optimistic or pessimistic perception. The method of multilevel regression analysis is used for this purpose. It was shown that inclusion into the model both micro and macro-level indicators is helpful to explain the differences between countries and allow us to better understand the “pure effects” of certain social determinants of public attitudes towards science and technology.      
Added: Oct 19, 2015
Working paper
Chernovich E. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2013. No. 18.
This paper investigates environmental behavior in Russian households by the analysis of 24 in-depth interviews conducted in typical households of the city of Moscow. Using the STS tools such as ‘script’ and ‘moral agency’ it discovers how technologies shape domestic routines and pro-environmental behavior of their users and how the users shape the resource consumption of technological artifacts. Depending on their environmental values and believes three types of residents are identified: committed environmentalists, occasional environmentalists and non-environmentalists. Each of the group of people appeared to have different agencies in relation to their domestic technologies. Technologies also seem to play different role in shaping moral actions of the three categories of residents.    
Added: Oct 10, 2013
Working paper
Maria Tokareva, Vishnevskiy K., Zarubin A. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2019. No. WP BRP 94/STI/2019.
Internet of Things (IoT) technologies are of particular interest for telecommunication companies that can significantly affect the interaction of economic agents. As a result of the growth in the number of connected devices, the introduction of cloud services and business applications it became possible to combine equipment, information systems and management systems into a single communication network which in turn gave impetus to the development of the Internet of Things. The basis for the development of the Internet of Things is modern data transmission technologies including IoT Wireless Networks. There are, currently, a number of wireless IoT technologies which have different characteristics. In this regard, it is of interest to identify the most promising technologies that will form the basis of the infrastructure for the development of the IoT ecosystem. This paper develops an assessment model for the application potential of IoT wireless network technologies for the telecommunication sector. LPWAN, 4G and Wi-Fi were identified as the most promising technologies. The majority of the assessment criteria are applicable to other telecommunication technologies.
Added: Mar 6, 2019
Working paper
Meissner D., Narkhova A., Plekhanov D. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2016
This paper aims to give an overview of the ongoing digital evolution of S&T systems in general and its particular aspects: STI policies and research skills development. Within this context the study focuses on digitalization's impacts in terms of enhancingsources of new knowledge: human capital and tangible assets (infrastructures and information processing tools etc.). Hence, some highly relevant questions arise from the gaps identified during the literature analysis regarding the useful and proper implementation (adaptation/system improvement) of numerous opportunities given by digitalization. What are the new challenges for S&T systems caused by digitalization and what mechanisms could be implemented for system adaptation to them? What are the new research skills that are a high priority to acquire both by individuals and system as a whole?
Added: Oct 19, 2016
Working paper
Kitrar Liudmila, Lipkind Tamara, Ostapkovich Georgy. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2020. No. WP BRP 1 10 STI /20 20.
Added: Jun 18, 2020
Working paper
Vishnevskiy K., Milshina Y., Saritas O. et al. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2018. No. 89/STI/2018 .
The wild cards conception as an element of foresight studies has been widely discussed by numerous scholars who have interest and qualification in strategic management field or STI policies from the end of the previous century. Some researchers focus their attention on the general key features of this phenomenon and its overall impact as well as origin, while others study possible applications of wild cards analysis in corporate and government sectors. The purpose of this research is to systematize knowledge about wild cards, determine their role in foresight practices and suggest an instrument for their detection and implementation into foresight research. For this reason, on the basis of a number of national and international foresight projects, we developed existing methodological approaches of wild cards identification, analysis and visual presentation. The results of the study were applied to Russian S&T Foresight 2030.
Added: Oct 25, 2018
Working paper
Polyakova V. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2013. No. 21.
Throughout history the development of medical institution was followed by the extension of medical expertise boundaries. Progress in new medical biotechnologies and the manipulation of human biological material, in particular, raise the conceptual question of how to define the boundaries between human beings and biological material. This paper focuses on the analysis of attitudes towards research on the human body, in scientific, political and cultural discourse. In public discussions about stem cell technology we found that the extension of medical expertise boundaries caused an intervention of ethical expertise in the fields of science and medicine. Nevertheless, the cultural conflict does not become an obstacle to the recognition of stem cell research and its legitimation in the collective consciousness.
Added: Nov 7, 2013
Working paper
Saritas O., Proskuryakova L. N., Кызынгашева Е. С. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2015. No. 35.
Water resources are crucial for the continuity of life. Humans and living species need fresh water for drinking and sanitation, while industries in most sectors of the economy need water for some part of production processes themselves. Access to fresh water is a grand challenge at the global level, mainly due to increasing water consumption, a low rate of replenishment of resources as well as external factors, like climate change, that significantly reduce amount of water available. The solutions to the existing water problems require systemic approaches for the sustainable use of water resources, while advancing water infrastructure and providing circular use of water.   Russia is one of the countries, which is relatively better positioned compared to a number of other countries in the world regarding the availability of water resources. However, there are still considerable issues regarding the protection and use of water resources, purification processes, water networks, consumption patterns, discharge, treatment and re-use. The present study focuses on the use of water resources in Russia with a long term perspective developed through a Foresight study. The first step involved a scanning exercise, to be followed by future scenarios on the second step, and strategy proposals for action on the third one. The paper presents the results of the scanning phase.   The present paper consists of four parts. The introduction reviews the key issues and challenges concerning water resources. The first part describes the detailed research methodology. Furthermore, trends and uncertainties are identified in the course of the study, and their implications for water resources in Russia are discussed. Particular attention is paid to state-of-the-art situation in three domains identified in the scope of research: sustainability of water systems, water use by households and industry, and new water products and services. Weak signals and wild cards are described in the third part. The paper concludes with a brief description of the next phases of the study and follow-up activities planned in the project.
Added: Jun 30, 2015
Working paper
Fursov K., Nefedova A., Thurner T. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION. НИУ ВШЭ, 2016. No. 62.
This paper argues that innovation behavior roots in specific socio-psychological set-ups that crystallize in daily practices and routines. The latter are easy to observe and have great potential for the identification of user-innovation behavior. We study the practices and routines of Russian user-innovators around media consumption, internet and technologyusage, consumer preferences and civic engagement in comparison with a sample of mere users. The derived model correctly classified 73% of the original grouped cases of userinnovators. We conclude that a set of practices relative to the economic, social and cultural background explains user-innovation engagement and how support could be provided. Although some of our findings are probably specific to Russia, the results are encouraging for further research into the importance of practices and routines in identifying user-innovators.      
Added: Jun 22, 2016