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Of all publications in the section: 115
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Working paper
Polyachenko S. S., Nye J. V., Bruhanov M. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 78/EC/2014.
Using a large sample drawn from families in the Moscow and Moscow region which are part of the Russian RMLS longitudinal survey we observe clear links between measured 2D:4D digit ratios and a variety of life outcome measures, even with the inclusion of multiple controls. Contributing to existing empirical findings, we found statistically significant empirical associations of 2D:4D with higher educational attainment, occupational outcomes, knowledge of foreign language, smoking, engaging in sport activities and with some aspects of respondent's self-esteem. In general, the character of detected empirical associations are different for women and men, as it was documented in our previous studies.
Added: Dec 12, 2014
Working paper
Bruhanov M., Nye J. V., Polyachenko S. S. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2016
Is in utero exposure to testosterone (T), measured by the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), associated with lifetime educational attainment? A growing body of work finds exposure to prenatal T to be associated with aggression, physical fitness, performance in computer science, and type of occupation. However, there has not yet been substantial research its relationship with lifetime educational outcomes. Using a large sample drawn from families in Moscow and in the Moscow region from the Russian Longitudinal Measurement Survey (RLMS), we observe clear links between measured 2D:4D and the levels of education obtained by men. Statistically significant positive associations between higher 2D:4D (lower prenatal T) and higher levels of education were found, using difference in means analysis and generalized ordered logit (gologit) regressions. These findings were also robust to using a different subsample. Weaker findings were seen for women. Since many of the earlier findings have shown the benefits of higher prenatal T for achievement, the current finding of a negative effect of prenatal T on educational attainment raises interesting issues about the ambiguous effects of prenatal T and the degree to which the traits it promotes interact with different tasks and social contexts.
Added: Jun 2, 2016
Working paper
Kuchumova (Paramonova) Y. A. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2017. No. WP BRP 181/EC/2017.
The suspension of a driver's license, the revocation of a passport or a professional license are used by the tax authorities as sanctions for failure to comply with tax obligations and are referred to as collateral tax sanctions. In this paper, I propose a new rationale for why it may be beneficial to use collateral tax sanctions for the purpose of tax enforcement. By affecting consumption and providing enforcement targeted to a group, collateral tax sanctions may allow the government to impose punishment correlated with an individual's earning potential. Such punishment also makes the effective tax rates correlated with an individuals' earning potential and therefore leads to a more effective redistribution of income. I show that the use of collateral tax sanctions could increase the CES social welfare function when the skill distribution of the targeted group first-order stochastically dominates the skill distribution of the other group and the social welfare function is sufficiently concave.
Added: Dec 4, 2017
Working paper
Яновская Е. В. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. BRP 127/EC/2016 .
Two-person games and cost/surplus sharing problems are worth for studying because they are the base for their extending to the classes of such problems with variable population with the help of very powerful consistency properties. In the paper a family of cost-sharing methods for cost sharing problems with two agents [Moulin 2000] is extended to a class of solutions for two-person cooperative games that are larger than both cost-sharing and surplus-sharing problems, since cooperative games have no no restrictions on positivity of costs and surpluses. The tool of the extension is a new invariance axiom -- self covariance -- that can be applied both to cost-sharing methods and to cooperative game solutions. In particular, this axiom replaces the Lower composition axiom not applicable to methods for profit sharing problems
Added: Mar 24, 2016
Working paper
Karpov A. V. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2018. No. 188.
This paper presents a novel combinatorial approach for voting rule analysis. Applying reversal symmetry, we introduce a new class of preference profiles and a new representation (bracelet representation). By applying an impartial, anonymous, and neutral culture model for the case of three alternatives, we obtain precise theoretical values for the number of voting situations for the plurality rule, the run-off rule, the Kemeny rule, the Borda rule, and the scoring rules in the extreme case. From enumerative combinatorics, we obtain an information utilization index for these rules. The main results are obtained for the case of three alternatives.
Added: Apr 4, 2018
Working paper
Skorobogatov A. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 60/EC/2014.
This paper documents the negative link between the age of Russian cities and their average wage. This link is robust to various definitions of city age and sample censuring, the inclusion of regional and time fixed effects, dependent variable spatial lag and many urban characteristics. This link is revealed especially for cities founded after the Soviet industrialization and for upper quintiles of cities by their average wage. To determine a mechanism behind the established fact, hypotheses as to spatial patterns of economic performance are discussed, including the increasing return hypothesis, the institutions hypothesis and the geography hypothesis. Following the sophisticated version of the geography hypothesis, a model of growth in n-city and two-sector economy is developed. The model replicates the link between age and per capita income and contains testable hypotheses that enable one to check whether a mechanism outlined in the model is behind the link between city age and wage. Our empirical strategy is based on a quasi-experiment, in which the treatment effect is made by time and various age groups of the cities are broken up into treatment and control groups. The results are strongly in favor of the sophisticated geography hypothesis. The revealed mechanism suggests that the changing spatial patterns of wage differentials are explained by the changing remaining stocks of natural resources. Older cities are getting relatively poorer due to the shrinking of their remaining resource stocks, while new cities are emerging in resource-rich territories with the respective income advantages.
Added: Jun 23, 2014
Working paper
Skorobogatov A. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 59/EC/2014.
This paper uses the famous events related to Pussy Riot as a natural experiment to examine the effect of alternative media on church membership. A differences-in-differences strategy is used to explore the effect in question. The hypothesis is that, given a lack of religious background on the majority of the population and strong temporal interest in religious issues promoted by some provocative event, mass media can substantially affect religious choice. To check if this is the case, we compare the dynamics of religious choice of those exposed to alternative media reports on church topics and the rest of the people. As a proxy of familiarity with an alternative view, we use a dummy variable for using Internet. Our main result is that, during the experiment run over the year 2012, the growth of self-reported Orthodox and strict Orthodox believers was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group. Exposure to alternative media coverage turned out to heavily affect religious choice.
Added: May 26, 2014
Working paper
Malakhovskaya O. A., Minabutdinov A. R. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. WP BRP 48/EC/2013.
This paper constructs a DSGE model for an economy with commodity exports. We estimate the model on Russian data, making a special focus on quantitative effects of commodity price dynamics. There is a widespread belief that economic activity in Russia crucially depends on oil prices, but quantitative estimates are scarce. We estimate an oil price effect on the Russian economy in the general equilibrium framework. Our framework is similar to those of Kollmann(2001) and Dam and Linaa (2005), but we extend their models by explicitly accounting for oil revenues. In addition to standard supply, demand, cost-push, and monetary policy shocks, we include the shock of commodity export revenues, which are supposed to be like a windfall. The main objective of the paper is to identify the contribution of structural shocks to business cycle fluctuations in the Russian economy. We estimate the parameters and stochastic processes that govern ten structural shocks using Bayesian techniques. The model yields plausible estimates, and the impulse response functions are in line with empirical evidence. We found that despite a strong impact on GDP from commodity export shocks, business cycles in Russia are mostly domestically based
Added: Jan 28, 2014
Working paper
Arefiev N. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 79/EC/2014 .
I propose a method identification of structural vector autoregressions (SVARs) and simultaneous equations models (SEMs) with orthogonal structural shocks using testable identification restrictions. If some sparsity conditions are satisfied, the method produces a set of testable inclusions and exclusions, sufficient for the full identification. The method stems from the theory of probabilistic graphical models and from the theory of identification of SVARs and SEMs, merging them into a unified approach. In the application example, I estimate a SVAR monetary model of the US economy with 6 variables, where all but one identifying restrictions are testable. The method produces relatively narrow confidence intervals for the impulse-response functions, does not generate any anomalies such as the price puzzle, and reveals importance of informational channels through which news about structural shocks spread throughout the economy.
Added: Nov 28, 2014
Working paper
Yakovlev A. A., Levina I. A., Kazun A. D. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. 98.
This paper considers two issues. First, it evaluates the changes in Russia’s investment climate in 2012-2014 after the announcement of an ambitious governmental program to improve the conditions for doing business. Second, because the relevant reforms were personally initiated by Vladimir Putin, we carried out a survey experiment designed to find out how references to a popular politician influence respondents’ opinions about the business climate. We used the data of a large-scale survey of top managers in Russian manufacturing sector conducted in July-October of 2014. Contrary to the World Bank report, Easy Doing Business, our empirical data shows that there was practically no improvement in the investment climate in Russia in 2012-2014. Also contrary to the results of population surveys showing extremely high public support for Vladimir Putin after Crimea’s accession to Russia, our survey experiment demonstrated that referring to the President Putin as the initiator of business climate reform improves assessments of the business climate change only slightly. However, the effect of reference to the President’s initiative differs significantly for firms from different size groups – we revealed no effect of question wording in the group of small firms, much higher share of non-answers in the group of large firms and a significant increase in the share of positive assessments of business climate among mid-size firms when Vladimir Putin was mentioned.
Added: Sep 17, 2015
Working paper
Parshakov P., Байдина К. О. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2017. No. WP BRP 163/EC/2017.
This study estimates an attendance demand model in a reduced form, with uncertainty as one of the determinants of demand, to test the Uncertainty of Outcome Hypothesis (UOH), using data from the Russian Football Premier League (RFPL). These data fit our requirements for two reasons. First, there are few sellout matches, so demand for tickets in the RFPL is not restricted by stadium capacity. Secondly, there have hitherto been no articles devoted to the study of outcome uncertainty in the RFPL. The results indicate that the UOH does not explain the behavioural pattern of attendees in the RFPL. The dependence between the attendance and uncertainty is found to be U-shaped or even declining. We explain the U-shaped dependence by the visiting team effect; an attendee’s utility in the RFPL depends more on seeing a top team coming to the city than on the uncertainty of the outcome of the match.
Added: Jun 15, 2017
Working paper
Abanokova K., Lokshin M. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. 38.
This paper uses data from the Russian Longitudinal Survey that span the two recent economic recessions of 1998 and 2008 to study the effect of declining incomes on household composition. We hypothesize that individuals face a tradeoff between taking advantages of economies of scale and specialization when living with others and individual privacy. Consumption smoothing is achieved by forgoing privacy during a crisis and results in an increase in household size. Our empirical results suggest that members of the households that experienced negative income shocks are more likely to move in with others than households whose income remained the same or increased.
Added: Nov 13, 2013
Working paper
Morozov I. A., Podkolzina E. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. 25.
This paper proposes a method of bid-rigging detection, which allows us to reveal cartels in procurement auctions without any prior knowledge of the market structure. We apply it to data on highway construction procurements in one of the Russian regions and show that five suppliers demonstrated passive bidding behavior, which is consistent with the so called ‘rotating bidding’ scheme of collusion. The suggested methodology can be potentially used by both researchers and anti-trust agencies for cartel disclosure in various markets.
Added: Mar 26, 2013
Working paper
Shastitko A., Golovanova S. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 49/EC/2014.
This paper demonstrates that even established and verified facts of agreements among producers are not a sufficient condition for cartel identification and, as a consequence, prosecution of agreement participants. Such requires looking at institutional details and the wider context of these and similar appearances or occurrences of documents and actions when qualifying the actions of market participants and their effects. This paper discusses a recent antitrust case brought against Russian manufacturers of large diameter pipes (LDPs) that examined supposedly abusive practices by these firms that were contrary to the law on the Protection of Competition, which prohibits market division. An analysis of the materials in this case using modern economic theory indicates that the presence of collusion is inconsistent with the active participation of the main consumer of LDPs in that agreement. The chosen format for the cooperation between pipe manufacturing companies and OJSC Gazprom, namely indicative planning, may be explained from the perspective of reducing contract risk in an environment characterized by large-scale private investments.
Added: Feb 12, 2014
Working paper
Baranov E., Kim I., Piontkovski D. et al. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. WP BRP 108/EC/2015.
Time series of Input-Output (IO) accounts at current and constant prices are widely applied to study the dynamics and structure of economic activity within country and conduct cross-country comparisons and analyses of globalization processes as well as their impacts. For these purposes IO accounts have to adhere to a uniform nomenclature of products and economic activities in accordance with international standards. Unfortunately, Russian statistics currently do not satisfy this condition. The first Russian IO accounts for 2011, built in accordance with international standards, will be published only at the end of 2015 (previously published tables for 1995-2003 were built in the classifications "inherited" from the Soviet period). The IO accounts for 2012 and subsequent years will be built by extrapolating the cost structure of products and services for 2011. However, it leaves the open question of extending the time series of these tables for the retrospective period prior to 2011. As international experience shows, this type of calculation was predominantly conducted by research organizations and universities. Given this, the National Research University Higher School of Economics has been developing a methodology for constructing a retrospective time series of a part of the IO accounts (use tables and valuation matrices) from 2010, in order to experimentally test them, and apply them to the official IO accounts for 2011. The following results were obtained from our study. First, we proposed a two-step procedure to transform IO accounts for 2003 from the Soviet into the OKVED/OKPD classifications. Second, we used a two-stage biproportional method generalizing the RAS procedure to construct a time series of IO accounts for the subsequent period using the 2003 transformed IO accounts as the starting point. Finally, we recalculated a part of the IO accounts (use tables) at the previous year prices.
Added: Nov 23, 2015
Working paper
Baranov E. F., Kim I., Piontkovski D. et al. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. 108.
Time series of Input-Output (IO) accounts at current and constant prices are widely applied to study the dynamics and structure of economic activity within country and conduct cross-country comparisons and analyses of globalization processes as well as their impacts. For these purposes IO accounts have to adhere to a uniform nomenclature of products and economic activities in accordance with international standards. Unfortunately, Russian statistics currently do not satisfy this condition. The first Russian IO accounts for 2011, built in accordance with international standards, will be published only at the end of 2015 (previously published tables for 1995-2003 were built in the classifications "inherited" from the Soviet period). The IO accounts for 2012 and subsequent years will be built by extrapolating the cost structure of products and services for 2011. However, it leaves the open question of extending the time series of these tables for the retrospective period prior to 2011. As international experience shows, this type of calculation was predominantly conducted by research organizations and universities. Given this, the National Research University Higher School of Economics has been developing a methodology for constructing a retrospective time series of a part of the IO accounts (use tables and valuation matrices) from 2010, in order to experimentally test them, and apply them to the official IO accounts for 2011. The following results were obtained from our study. First, we proposed a two-step procedure to transform IO accounts for 2003 from the Soviet into the OKVED/OKPD classifications. Second, we used a two-stage biproportional method generalizing the RAS procedure to construct a time series of IO accounts for the subsequent period using the 2003 transformed IO accounts as the starting point. Finally, we recalculated a part of the IO accounts (use tables) at the previous year prices.
Added: Dec 3, 2015
Working paper
Anna Panova. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 66.
The research success of a university requires efficient recruiting. The talents of candidates are unobservable for administrators, and so they delegate hiring to the faculty who have better knowledge of the job market. Since professors dislike putting their own employment at risk, faculty, especially less productive, have an incentive to hire less productive candidates to insure against getting fired themselves. I argue that both tenure and strict long-term administrative positions mitigate this problem, and allow one to hire better candidates.
Added: Oct 21, 2014
Working paper
Rassadovskaia A. V., Andrey V. Aistov. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 57/EC/2014.
The efficiency of social reforms in different countries mostly depends on the extent to which they can be accepted by the population. However, even if problems are similar, the reasons may differ, which can make it difficult to apply existing laws of one state to another. Bribery is a typical problem for developing countries as shown in the Corruption Perception Index (calculated by Transparency International) and recent research (Levin and Satarov, 2000) (Ilzetzki, 2011). Corruption can have roots in socialist regimes as in recently established political stability instable economic situation may lead to growth in crime. The main challenge within the scope of this project is to identify the relation between corruption perception and levels of trust in society and to distinguish the differences in factors affecting these characteristics. The research reveals that distrust matters a lot for the problem in Russia and suggests further examination of the dynamics of trust between post Soviet countries and European countries.
Added: Apr 11, 2014
Working paper
Akhremenko A. S., Petrov A., Yureskul E. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. 109/EC/2015.
This paper deals with a model of economic growth, which we expand to include endogenous policy switching based on retrospective voting. It is shown that under certain conditions the solution has a special form that we call a cyclically balanced growth path. This type of solution is an analogue to balanced growth paths, which often occur in growth models with constant policies. Cyclically balanced growth paths are investigated analytically, and the growth rate over the cycle has been found. Results of numerical experiments are also provided and possible empirical applications of the model are outlined
Added: Nov 18, 2015
Working paper
Ozhegov E. M., Ozhegova A. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. WP BRP 156/EC/2016 .
This paper studies behavior patterns among theater attendees in the process of ticket purchasing. Since the theater attempts to balance between a high occupancy and affordable prices, the purpose of the study is to reveal the effects of changes in prices on attendance. This project is conducted conjointly with the Perm Tchaikovsky Opera and Ballet Theater. Data are taken from the sales information system of the theater for four seasons 2011-2012/2014-2015. The data are disaggregated to the level of the seating area and performance and consist of the attendance rate, the set of prices and the performance characteristics. The research explores the determinants of demand using a censored quantile regression which accounts for the heterogeneity of effects on different levels of attendance rates and censoring. We estimate the parameters of the demand function and show that the aggregated demand is elastic by price, at the same time the elasticity varies across different seating areas. Moreover, demand for the more popular seats and performances is less elastic
Added: Dec 5, 2016
Working paper
Aistov A., Mukhametova Elvina. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. WP BRP 89/EC/2015.
In this paper we explore relationships between corruption perceptions and such characteristics as the size of shadow economy, GDP per capita, well-being, the Happy Planet Index (HPI), and quality of institutions. Special attention is paid to the comparison of transitional economies with countries that joined the European Union in 2004 and 2007, and developed countries. It is shown that irrespective of whether the economy is developed or transitional, negative dependence of corruption perceptions on shadow economy switches to positive if the size of the shadow economy increases over 15% of the official GDP. After the shadow economy passes 45%, the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index ceases to respond to growth of the shadow economy. Our estimates confirm that transition in countries is accompanied by growth of GDP per capita and a decrease in the level of corruption perceptions. For these reasons, transitional countries and countries where transition is over belongs to different clusters according to these indicators. This is not true for well-being and the HPI. It is not surprising that a regression analysis shows that "control of corruption" and "regulatory quality" are significant for reducing corruption perceptions both in transitional and other economies. It is interesting that "government effectiveness" and "voice and accountability" are significant only for transitional economies and insignificant in others. "Rule of law" and "political stability" are insignificant both in transitional and in developed countries  
Added: Feb 17, 2015