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Of all publications in the section: 74
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Working paper
Kitrar Liudmila, Ostapkovich Georgy, Lipkind Tamara et al. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2017. No. 72.
This study compares Russian state information systems of industry with UN international recommendations. The harmonization of the Russian information system with successful international practices is necessary for measuring the main industrial indicator levels and dynamics in comparison with the information analogues of both cross-border and strategically important countries. This allows the estimation of the efficiency and competitiveness of Russian industry and the best decisions to be made at all levels of governance in Russia including in the technology and innovation policy sphere. The study shows that a significant number of annual, quarterly, monthly and weekly reporting forms within the Russian statistical system in the absence of a single questionnaire for obtaining comprehensive information from an enterprise and unified methodological recommendations do not solve the information gap problem. The available disaggregated information is not sufficient to analyse the quality and effectiveness of industrial policy, especially in comparison with global levels and tendencies of re-industrialization. The state statistical system needs modernization to reduce the reporting burden on enterprises and improve information transparency and comparability at the detailed level.
Added: Mar 7, 2017
Working paper
Chulok A., Suslov D., Moiseichev E. Y. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. 34.
Last several decades have shown a steady broadening of national security issues’ spectrum along with an increase in the strictness of international competition driven by advances in high tech-nologies and other factors. National security agenda is nowadays comprised not only of defense issues per se, but also includes economic, social, cultural and other aspects. All this is strongly influenced by the technological trends and the very possession of critical technologies has be-come a pressing national security issue. Thus, we are witnessing a gradual convergence of na-tional security and technological agendas. Advocating a proactive approach to tackling national security risks of a technological nature, the authors make an attempt to outline the contemporary innovative methodology of assessing, harnessing and counteracting such risks. Their key rec-ommendation lies in the appeal for joining the forces of theorists and practitioners in the field of both national security and science, technology and innovation (STI) policy to overcome the cor-responding challenges.
Added: Mar 25, 2015
Working paper
Proskuryakova L., Meissner D., Rudnik P. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 26/STI/2014 .
The paper offers a taxonomy of the technology platforms (TPs) to help assess a platform’s risk level. TPs are seen as a valuable policy instrument that assists a multi-stakeholder formulation and implementation of long-term R&D programs in specific technology areas at economy or industry level. The TPs analysis and the taxonomy are based on the industrial economic perspective and contribute to defining and implementing technology platforms above the company level. In practical terms the results of the study may be used by policy-makers in designing the R&D support measures. Moreover, the paper clarifies the role of TPs in the science, technology and innovation policy mix. The authors trace the evolution of the ‘technology platform’ concept from an instrument used by companies for R&D and innovation management towards a policy instrument used for technology and economic development at national and international levels. The authors propose a theoretical approach to TPs as a science, technology and innovation policy concept. Furthermore the paper offers a case-study of Russia’s newly established Technology Platforms.
Added: Apr 21, 2014
Working paper
Abdrakhmanova G. I., Kovaleva G. G., Plaksin S. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. WP BRP 61/STI/2016 .
Our study object is the Russian Internet economy, i.e. economic activities of companies relying on the Russian-language segment of the World Wide Web. The purpose of this study is to classify businesses engaged in the national Internet economy and measure its size (as a share of GDP) using official statistics. The analysis of international approaches used for such studies allowed us to classify these according to the following criteria: the direct impact of the Internet on the economy, indirect economic impact of the Internet, and its indirect impact on the social sphere. To assess the size of the Russian Internet economy we used the approaches applied by international organizations (OECD, BCG, McKinsey) for the analysis of the direct impact of the Internet on the economy [BCG (2014), McKinsey (2011), OECD (2014), etc.]. The authors singled out three sectors within the Internet economy: the sector of ICT infrastructure and its maintenance; the sector of companies doing business purely on the Internet, and the sector of companies combining an online and offline business. To assess the share of the Internet economy in GDP using the production approach we first defined the above sectors in accordance with All-Russian Classification of Economic Activities (OKVED) Rev. 1.1 and subsequently calculated gross value added (GVA) for each sector. For this purpose, the GVA data calculated by Federal Service of State Statistics (Rosstat) was disaggregated while the share of the GVA contributed by the third sector companies (i.e. combining an online and offline business) was assessed using the results of special surveys and Rosstat data. To measure the size of the Internet economy using the expenditure approach we focused on consumer spending on goods bought through the Internet, ICT equipment and Internet access as well as institutions’ expenditure for ICT equipment, fixed capital investment of enterprises engaged in Internet activities, public sector ICT spending, net exports of ICT goods and services. According to our estimates obtained by two methods such as the production approach and expenditure approach, the share of the Internet economy in GDP in 2014 amounted to 2.7 and 2.6%, respectively. Future studies would require a more detailed definition and description of the Internet-related economic activities on the basis of OKVED2 with subsequent calculation of GVA for appropriate companies as well as development of statistical tools for collecting data on household spending
Added: Jun 3, 2016
Working paper
Kadyrova A. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. WP BRP 38/STI/2015.
The paper presents an analysis of advanced technology classifications development. Despite the variety of technology types – advanced, emerging, disruptive, enabling, best available – the focus of the study is made on the first type considering their precedent character, crucial role for manufacturing and overall economic development. Various approaches to define the term ‘advanced technology’ as well as gradual evolution of the definitions and classifications are demonstrated in the paper.  It is argued that the initial understanding of advanced technologies was formed in early 1990s and characterized increase in efficiency, hardware and software usage, robotics, etc. Further rapid progress of science and technology in 1990-2010s led to the expansion of the concept by the means of technologies based on fast computing, primarily used for design, control and track of manufacturing activities as well as micro- and nanotechnologies. Moreover, indicators used for measurement of their development and use are compared.
Added: May 26, 2015
Working paper
Gokhberg L., Kuzminov I., Bakhtin P. D. et al. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2017. No. WP BRP 76/STI/2017.
The paper discloses a new approach to emerging technologies identification, which strongly relies on capacity of big data analysis, namely text mining augmented by syntactic analysis techniques. It discusses the wide context of the task of identifying emerging technologies in a systemic and timely manner, including its place in the methodology of foresight and future-oriented technology analysis, its use in horizon scanning exercises, as well as its relation to the field of technology landscape mapping and tech mining. The concepts of technology, emerging technology, disruptive technology and other related terms are assessed from the semantic point of view. Existing approaches to technology identification and technology landscape mapping (in wide sense, including entity linking and ontology-building for the purposes of effective STI policy) are discussed, and shortcomings of currently available studies on emerging technologies in agriculture and food sector (A&F) are analyzed. The opportunities of the new big-data-augmented methodology are shown in comparison to existing results, both globally and in Russia. As one of the practical results of the study, the integrated ontology of currently emerging technologies in A&F sector is introduced. The directions and possible criteria of further enhancement and refinement of proposed methodology are contemplated, with special attention to use of bigger volumes of data, machine learning and ontology-mining / entity linking techniques for the maximum possible automation of the analytical work in the discussed field. The practical implication of the new approach in terms of its effectiveness and efficiency for evidence-based STI policy and corporate strategic planning are shortly summed up as well.
Added: Nov 28, 2017
Working paper
Волконицкая К. Г. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. 55.
The working paper is based on research findings concerning the functioning of 35 Russian technology parks in 2013 – the first half of 2015. The analysis of the performance of these technology parks has been carried out on the basis of the CANVAS framework, proposed by Osterwalder and Pine in 2010. The research was conducted in the domain of 9 key blocks business model of technology parks, including infrastructure and services provided, companies’ residents, cooperation with partners, including regional and federal authorities, scientific and education institutions, financial and economic indicators of technoparks and key performance indicators used. On the basis of empirical data 7 business models of functioning of Russian technology parks were revealed, including IT-park, university park, 2 types of facilitators of innovation processes in a region and 3 types of entrepreneurial technoparks. The classification allows differentiating the nature and level of support of technology parks as objects of innovation infrastructure. Detailed profile of business models reveals the competitive advantages and weaknesses of technoparks, as well as mechanisms to improve the efficiency of these objects of innovation infrastructure.
Added: Dec 8, 2015
Working paper
Shmatko N. A., Lavrynenko A. S., Meissner D. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2017. No. 74.
The paper explores the composition of researchers' skillsets in an innovation-driven environment from the perspective of employers. The authors analyze the relation between skills requirements described in job advertisements for researchers and the presumed innovation culture of companies. The study is based on job advertisements content analysis and in-depth interviews with chiefs of research and development companies. It uses biotechnology industry as an example as it is one of the fastest-growing and innovation-driven sectors globally. Authors used data from Russian, as well as Canadian, UK and USA job search engines to consider international context. Empirical findings demonstrated that skills composition stress on hard skills more frequently and detailed, while soft skills are often a "must have without saying". The same is for digital skills that are assumed to be essential in high-tech companies globally and therefore not fully specified in job ads. There is a certain mismatch between skills presented in the ads and articulated in the interviews as employers tend to demonstrate innovation-friendly company culture for possible applicants. The present paper enriches literature on skills assessment, giving comprehensive lists of biotech skills in-demand divided into soft and hard categories. In addition, it provides the new insight into employee skills articulated by the companies as a strong element of organizational innovation climate.
Added: Oct 13, 2017
Working paper
Kotsemir M. N., Meissner D. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. 10/STI/2013.
This paper introduces the evolving understanding and conceptualization of innovation process models. From the discussion of different approaches towards the innovation process understanding and modeling two types of approaches to the evolution of innovation models are developed and discussed. First the so-called innovation management approach which focuses on the evolution of the company innovation management strategies in different socioeconomic environments. Second is the analysis the evolution of innovation models themselves in conceptual sense (conceptual approach) as well as analysis of theoretical backgrounds and requirements for these models. The main focus of analysis in this approach is on advantages and disadvantages of different innovation models in their ability to describe the reality of innovation processes. The paper focuses on the advantages and disadvantages as well as potentials and limitations  of the approaches and also proposes potential future developments of innovation models as well as the analysis of driving forces that underlie the evolution of innovation models recently.
Added: Apr 27, 2013
Working paper
Chichkanov N., Miles I. D., Belousova V. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2019. No. 92/STI/2019.
The development of service industries in emerging economies has been attracting more attention in recent years, but to date there have been few studies of knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) in these countries. (The main exception is the case of a specific sector – software and related Information Technology services, with most focus here being on India. KIBS as a whole have received little examination.) This paper aims to study how conditions for innovation influence innovation activities in KIBS in one of the largest emerging countries, Russia. The study draws on survey data from firms belonging to ten KIBS subsectors, based in major Russian cities in 2015. The results contrast with those generally reported in Western developed economies. In this particular emerging economy, firms experiencing negative market and knowledge conditions are actually more liable to undertake nontechnological innovations. We consider various explanations for this apparent anomaly. The institutional framework appears to be less essential for KIBS than has been earlier documented for manufacturing enterprises in Russia. Implications for innovation management and policy are outlined: both government and corporate, strategies here would benefit from more attention to these sectors.
Added: Jan 21, 2019
Working paper
Varfolomeev E., Marin O., Bykov D. et al. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 24.
This paper studies the integration of social and environmental objectives into strategy through performance indicators based on a sample of multinational world-leading oil- and gas producers. Also, we inquire if the companies under study, which identify certain areas as strategic objectives, do better than their peers. We show that top management of the companies did indeed identify different areas of interest, had different strategic foci, and used different performance indicators. This is often explicable through a company’s own history and past experiences. When comparing a sample of greenhouse gas emissions, safety measures, and energy efficiency indicators between the different companies, we could not identify a consistent development over time trends. In fact, some did worse over time and collective improvements were largely absent.
Added: Mar 12, 2014
Working paper
Vlasova V., Roud V. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2017. No.  75/STI/2017.
This paper develops an integrated framework to examine the determinants of industry-science cooperation in the general process of developing innovation. Based on the literature review and using firm-level data on innovation strategies of 805 manufacturing enterprises in Russia we investigate what are the incentives to firms (1) to cooperate with universities and R&D organizations and (2) to choose a particular mode of interaction that ranges from purchasing S&T services to a full scale original R&D aimed at creating new-to-market innovation. We suggest that a broad range of intramural and external determinants, including competition regime, absorptive capacity, technological opportunities, appropriability conditions, public support, as well as barriers to the practical application of R&D results influence the firm’s decision on cooperation with knowledge producers. The findings indicate that the scale of industry-science linkages in Russian manufacturing is limited and generally hampered by low propensity of business to the R&D-based innovation strategies.
Added: Oct 16, 2017
Working paper
Veselov F., Fedosova A. V. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. 49/STI/2015.
The paper is devoted to the issue of smart power system cost-benefit analysis. The innovative character of smart grids is defined and related obstacles for traditional cost-benefit assessment are revealed, primarily referred to external effects evaluation. Brief systematization of existing methods of smart grids assessment is provided and their weak points are defined. A new Smart Grid cost-benefit assessment approach is presented, basing on the elaborated comprehensive system of smart power system effects. The approach is tested for the system effects of smart power system implementation in the Russian Unified Energy System, quantitative results are presented.
Added: Nov 10, 2015
Working paper
Kuzminov I., Bakhtin P. D., Khabirova E. et al. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2018. No. 82.
This paper contributes to the conceptualisation and operationalisation of the “technology trend” discussion in the scope of the Technology Foresight paradigm. It proposes a consistent logical approach to analysing technology trends and increase predictive potential of futures studies. The approach integrates Big Data analysis into the Foresight studies’ toolset by means of applying text mining, namely computerised analysis of large volumes of unstructured text-based industry-relevant analytics. It comprises methodological results such as analytical decomposition of the trend concept, including trend attributes (inherent characteristics) and various trend types and empirical results of detection and classification of global technology trends in the agricultural sector. The study makes a significant contribution to the development of a conceptual apparatus for trend analysis as a sub-area of Foresight methodology. The agricultural field is used to demonstrate the application the methodology. The empirical results can be applied by federal and regional authorities responsible for promoting development of the sectors to design relevant strategies and programmes, and by companies to set their long-term marketing and investment priorities.
Added: Oct 3, 2018
Working paper
Mikhail Bokov, Razheva (Edelkina) A., Klubova M. et al. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. 22.
The paper assesses the development of the market for navigation services and devices based on the results of a recently held Foresight exercise on monitoring of global technology trends. The future of the market for Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) devices is largely influenced by grand challenges (i.e. lifestyle change, technical safety, urbanization, rural development, food security, etc.) that determine the pathway for extending use of GNSS signal in different sectors of the economy. Today, satellite positioning technology is used by transporters, carriers, motorists, surveyors, builders, etc. through a wide array of devices — like mobile phones or multimedia devices with built-in receiver modules. Different Foresight methods and tools were used for analyzing the market structure and volumes of navigation services and devices and to detect potential future market developments. The main technical characteristics of GNSS are compared in order to reveal their impact on the quality of the navigation signal essential for the end-users. Investigating the future dynamics of this market in Russia on the basis of expert estimations and governmental strategic documents, the authors conclude that the commercialization of GNSS in Russia is possible only in certain segments, mainly navigation modules for personal vehicles, surveying and mapping equipment as well as consumer electronics.
Added: Nov 16, 2013
Working paper
Kuchin I., Gennady Baranovskii, Dranev Y. et al. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2019. No. 101.
The goal of this research is to add to the existing corpus of knowledge concerning particular green finance instrument - green bonds. It tries to answer some questions relevant for both scholars and business in order to reinforce the development of green bonds market. One of these questions is whether green bonds issuance cause positive market reaction. Resent activities in global agenda, starting from United Nations Sustainable Goals released in 2015 and endings huge public attention for green issues in 2019 impose additional burden on companies’ competitiveness. Our major hypothesis is that ecological factors affect investors’ decisions whose portfolios and investment declarations are getting to be more aligned with global ecological agenda. The green bonds issuance provide a signal for investors that the issuing firm is involved in sustainable development and hence its stock may be included in the portfolio.  The study discovers the significance of the “green” label for the stock market reaction. Alongside, it studies some other features of green bonds, fostering their evolvement and justifying their costs for issuers.
Added: Nov 1, 2019
Working paper
Lola I. S., Bakeev M., Manukov A. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2019. No. WP BRP 102/STI/2019.
This paper presents the results of measuring cross-sectoral economic and technological effects, allowing to determine the degree of dependence between the segments that produce digital technologies and implement them. The basis for empirical calculations was the survey data of leaders among Russian IT companies and retail organizations on the current state of digital and business activity. The purpose of the work is to identify the presence and establish the strength of the relationship between these segments in terms of existing localized industry effects, expressed in the transfer of technology from the IT segments to retail. The authors of the work identified and tested several specific hypotheses, the general meaning of which was to suggest that retail trade in the current stage of economic development in Russia is susceptible to emerging trends in the rapidly changing IT services sector that can quickly and efficiently respond to the growth of the IT companies digital activity by increasing investments in digital technologies and increasing the intensity of their application in business processes. In particular, hypotheses were tested regarding the impact of business activity in the IT services segments on the growth of electronic commerce turnover, the use of online marketplaces, Big data technologies, virtual and augmented reality technologies in retail trade organizations, as well as hypotheses suggesting a connection between the development of mobile applications in the IT segments and the use of mobile technologies, expectations regarding the growth of electronic goods turnover in retail organizations. The obtained results confirmed the majority of the hypotheses put forward, thereby supporting the authors' general assumption about the existence of specific effects of the development of the IT segments on intersectoral technological transfers, revealed the existing specifics of penetration and spread of modern technological trends in trade, and also showed that the IT is currently important component in the process of digital transformation of Russian retail trade organizations.
Added: Oct 31, 2019
Working paper
Kotsemir M. N., Kuznetsova T., Nasybulina E. et al. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. 53/STI/2015.
The problem of rationalizing S&T cooperation, including identifying the most promising areas and forms for S&T cooperation (geographical and thematic) and state support instruments, is critically important to many countries. In view of the growing complexity of global trends and domestic restrictions on development and the emergence of new factors affecting contacts with foreign countries, there are increasing demands in the international arena to collect and analyse relevant information required to make substantiated administrative decisions on various levels, including with regard to international S&T collaboration. In these conditions, researchers and experts tend to resort to a broad range of empirical methods, while politicians make more active use of their results in administrative practice and international contacts. This working paper describes and systematizes analysis results in the field of international S&T collaboration based on a bibliometric study. The authors combine quantitative methods of bibliometrics and sociology to identify prospective partners and promising areas for collaboration. In addition, the possibility of using the proposed approach to provide information support for current state policy-making is assessed, and key results of the study are examined.
Added: Oct 23, 2015
Working paper
Karpov A. V. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2012. No. 03.
The publication credit allocation problem  is one of the  fundamental problems  in bibliometrics. The solution of this problem provides the basis of further research.  There are two  solutions which do  not require any additional information: equal weights measure and Shapley value. Until recently Shapley value is not used because of hardness of computing. The paper  justifies the equal weights measure by showing equivalence with the Shapley value approach for sharing coauthors performance in specific games.
Added: Jan 17, 2013
Working paper
Gershman M., Kitova G. A. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. 57.
n recent years, evaluation and impact assessments (IA) of research and innovation (R&I) policies have become of interest both to researchers and policy makers. The latter use the results of such assessments when developing new regulations and monitoring the implementation and effectiveness of policies already in place. The practice and methodology of policy evaluation and IA are characterised by the diversity of approaches used and the existence of a number of unresolved methodological problems. At the same time, efforts are being made to define conceptual frameworks for policy evaluation and IA, categorise relevant studies and cases, and draft recommendations. This paper looks at public policies and programmes aimed at stimulating R&I in Russian universities. For this purpose, 299 universities were surveyed in 2013-2014 to reveal their demand for the relevant policies in 2006-2012 and the effects they had. Based on survey results we assess the impact of the policies on universities and suggest recommendations regarding the improvement of state regulations and further conduction of similar assessments.
Added: Jun 20, 2016
Working paper
Gokhberg L., Kuznetsova T., Roud V. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2012. No. 01.
Recent studies of innovation behavior characteristics focus on analysis of microdata (enterprise level) as the key instrument to reveal facts and hypotheses describing the innovation activities under diverse economic, political and infrastructural conditions. This paper applies the state-of-the-art innovation modes approach [OECD, 2008] to provide insights on the Russian innovation environment, highlighting the variation of innovation strategies across sectors of Russian industry. Cross-country comparison based on the OECD data and Russian firm-level findings is presented along with the discussion of possible development of systemic instruments and evidence-based methods for policymaking.
Added: Oct 13, 2012