• A
  • A
  • A
  • ABC
  • ABC
  • ABC
  • А
  • А
  • А
  • А
  • А
Regular version of the site
Of all publications in the section: 27
Sort:
by name
by year
Working paper
Zasimova L. S., Shishkin S. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. WP BRP 07/PA/2013.
The adoption of new medical technologies in Russian public hospitals is an important part of healthcare modernization and thus is a subject for public finance and regulation. Here we examine the decision-making process on adoption of new technologies in Russian hospitals, and the institutional environment in which they are made. We find that public hospitals operate within a strategic-institutional model of decision making and tend to adopt technologies that bring indirect benefits to their heads/physicians. Unlike Western clinics, the interests of Russian hospital heads and physicians are driven by the possibilities to obtain income from a part of hospital activities: the provision of chargeable medical services to the population, as well as receiving informal payments from patients. The specifically Russian feature of the decision-making process is that hospitals are strongly dependent on health authorities’ decisions about new equipment acquisition. The inefficiency problems arise from the contradiction between hospitals’ and authorities’ financial motivation for acquiring new technologies: hospitals tend to adopt technologies that bring benefits to their heads/physicians and minimize maintenance and servicing costs, while authorities’ main concern is initial cost of technology. The main reason for inefficiency of medical technology adoption arises from centralization of procurement of medical equipment for hospitals that creates the preconditions for rent-seeking behaviour of persons making such decisions.
Added: Dec 30, 2013
Working paper
Yakovlev A. A., Tkachenko A., Demidova O. et al. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. WP BRP 08/PA/2013.
The reform of budget-sector entities enables us to compare the impact of different types of public procurement regulations in budget and autonomous organizations in Russia. Such analysis is important in light of the critical discussion of the effects of current procurement regulation (94-FL), as well as taking into account the introduction of the Federal Contract System in 2014. Using the difference-in-differences methodology, we shall consider public procurements of two national universities in 2011–2012. All procurements of the first university were regulated by the 94-FL requirements. Procurements of the second university were regulated by the 94-FL until June 2011. Later this university introduced its own Procurements Provision. A comparative analysis of procurements of these organizations enables us to estimate the impact of the different types of regulations on the effectiveness of public procurement, as measured by the level of competition and price decline in public tenders, as well as the timely execution of procurement contracts.
Added: Nov 29, 2013
Working paper
Podkolzina E., Voytova T. I. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2011. No. 01.
The main goal of public procurement reform in Russia, initiated in 2005, was to prevent corrupt deals between suppliers and procurers. That is why the public procurement law favors formal mechanisms to govern most of the stages of procurement: the procurer is not allowed to take into account the reputation of the supplier when he announces calls for bids and selects the supplier, and he is prescribed to use the legal system (courts) if he is not satisfied with the contract performance. Since the efficiency of formal institutions is not very high, these mechanisms are complemented by a “formalized informal instrument” - blacklisting opportunistic suppliers, which is believed to substitute for reputation mechanisms when formal mechanisms are weak. In this paper, we show how and why the institutional environment in Russia makes the blacklisting of opportunistic suppliers irrelevant. We explore how the percentage of contract breaches out of the total number of signed contracts is related to corruption and transparency measures for Russian regions. We also argue that such factors as measurement costs, verification costs, length of contracts and lawsuit amounts influence the probability of winning a legal action for a contract breach.
Added: Aug 27, 2012
Working paper
Jakobson L. I., Mersiyanova I. V., Efremov S. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2012. No. 03.
Nonprofit accountability in Russia is becoming increasingly important as nonprofit organizations become more open delivering more social services, public participation increases and third sector institutions evolve. In this paper authors demonstrate accountability in its different dimensions as it is shaped by the specific Russian social, economic and political environment. Supportive  empirical data available from the annual Monitoring of the State of Russian Civil Society is used to argue that Russian nonprofits face contradictions between “accountability for” and “accountability to” different stakeholders. These contradictions are a challenge requiring new legislation and behavioral ethics which could balance the sector’s heterogeneity.  In conclusion a two-tier regulatory framework is suggested.
Added: Jan 17, 2013
Working paper
Makarov A. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 20.
This article focuses on the development of antitrust policy in transition economies in the context of preventing explicit and tacit collusion. Experience of BRICS, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and CEE countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Estonia) in the creation of antitrust institutions was analyzed, including both legislation and enforcement practice. This article analyzes such enforcement problems as: classification problems (tacit vs explicit collusion, vertical vs horizontal agreements), flexibility of prohibitions (“per se” vs “rule of reason”), design of sanctions, private enforcement challenge, leniency program mechanisms, the role of antitrust authorities etc. Main challenges for policy effectiveness in this field were shown
Added: Dec 4, 2014
Working paper
Svetlana Avdasheva, Dina Tsytsulina, Svetlana Golovanova et al. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. 26.
Many antitrust investigations in Russia continue to present a challenge for the assessment of competition policy and international enforcement ratings. On the one hand, many infringement decisions may be interpreted as an indicator of high enforcement efforts in the context of rigid competition restrictions and the significant related harm to social welfare. On the other hand, many investigations proceed under poor legal and economic standards; therefore, the impact of decisions and remedies on competition is questionable. In fact, large number of investigations may indicate the ineffectiveness of antitrust enforcement. The article explains the possible effects of antitrust enforcement in Russia. Using a unique dataset of the appeals of infringement decisions from 2008-2012, we classify the investigated cases according to their potential impact on competition. A case-level analysis reveals that the majority of cases would never be investigated under an appropriate understanding of the goals of antitrust enforcement, restrictions on competition and basic cost-benefit assessments of agency activity. There are diverse explanations for the distorted structure of enforcement, including the incompleteness and imperfection of sector-specific regulations, rules concerning citizen complaints against the executive authorities and the incentives of competition authorities. Our analysis shows that competition agencies tend to pay more attention to the investigation of cases, which requires less input and, at the same time, results in infringement decisions with a lower probability of being annulled.
Added: Apr 3, 2015
Working paper
Tkachenko A., Yakovlev A., Demidova O. et al. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 19/PA/2014.
This paper analyses the impact of reform and different regulation regimes on effectiveness of procurement of a large state university in the period from 2008 to 2012. We will evaluate the impact on its procurement effectiveness parameters of two significant changes in the public procurement regulation: transfer to electronic auctions from 2010 under the Federal Law and adoption by this organization of its own Procurement Provision from 2011. We show that transfer to electronic auctions leads to higher competition and more significant price decreases, whereas the adoption of Procurement provision has an opposite effect. Regarding delays in contracts execution, the first reform has no effect and the second regulation change result in decreasing of delays.
Added: Oct 21, 2014
Working paper
Gulnara A. Minnigaleeva Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2014
This paper discusses the strategy and success factors of development of age-friendly programs in the City of Tuymazy and Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation, as a part of the Global Age-Friendly Project of World Health Organization. A research followed by a small grass root initiative led to development of a large regional program with 21 municipalities involved. The key success factors included: creating an agency to trigger, promote and implement age-friendly practices; establishing partnerships with government and other organizations in the area; building and maintaining media and public relations; building on culture; expanding and encouraging civic engagement; starting small; providing recognition and credit. Building awareness and partnerships is vital for advancing age-friendly programs. With multiple stakeholders involved it is important to maintain regular communications conduct information sessions and stick to the planning and reporting schedule. For continuity and sustainability of a large scale project it is essential to hire paid staff.
Added: Jul 5, 2014
Working paper
Sheiman I., Shevski V. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. WP BRP 10/PA/2013.
Fragmentation in organization and discontinuities in the provision of medical care are problems in all healthcare systems, whether it is the mixed public-private system in the USA, national health services in the UK, or insurance-based ones in Western Europe and Russia. In all of these countries, a major challenge is to improve integration in order to improve efficiency and health outcomes. This article assesses issues related to fragmentation and integration in conceptual terms and argues that key attributes of integration are teamwork, coordination, and continuity of care. It then presents a summary of integration problems in Russia and presents the results of a large survey of physicians concerning the attributes of integration. It is argued that the characteristics of the national service delivery model do not ensure integration. The Semashko model of service delivery, although designed as an integrated model, has been distorted under pressure of the process of specialization of care. It is also argued that larger organizational forms of service provision, like policlinics and integrated hospital-policlinics, do not have higher scores of integration indicators than smaller ones. Proposals to improve integration in Russia are presented with the focus on the regular evaluation of integration and fragmentation, regulation of integration activities, enhancing the role of PHC providers, and economic incentives
Added: Jan 24, 2014
Working paper
Kalinin A. M., Kolosnitsyna M., Zasimova L. S. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2011. No. 02.
Individuals’ lifestyles strongly affect health outcomes and thus are a subject for public regulations in all developed countries. In this paper we discuss how different policy measures change individual behaviour with respect to consuming alcohol, tobacco products, and healthy food and participating in sports activities. We start by presenting data on health-related behaviours in Russia compared to other countries and show that the majority of Russians do not pay enough attention to their health and underestimate the risks of unhealthy behaviour. We analyse the public policy response to the increasing number of people with unhealthy habits to prove that drawbacks in legal acts and in public procurement increase the prevalence of bad habits. We therefore propose different policy instruments to improve the current situation and analyse the possible impacts and costs of suggested measures.
Added: Aug 27, 2012
Working paper
Yakovlev A. A., Выгловский О. В., Demidova O. et al. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. WP BRP 24/PA/2015 .
This paper analyzes the phenomenon of repeated procurements made by public sector customers from the same supplier. The previous surveys of “relational contracts” gave different explanations for the possible implications of such repeated procurements, but those surveys dealt mostly with goods and services, with quality difficult to verify at the point of delivery. This work studies the impact of repeated procurements on the price of a simple homogeneous product. We presume that the downward price shift of such a product during repeated procurements can be the consequence of transaction costs reduction in the framework of the bona fide behavior of a customer and supplier. An upward shift in the prices as compared to the market average can, on the contrary, be interpreted as an indirect indication of corrupt collusion between them. Using a huge dataset on procurements of AI-92 gasoline in Russia in 2011, we show that the price difference between repeated and one-time contracts can be explained by the type of procurement procedures providing different opportunities for corrupt behavior. Less transparent procedures (single-sourcing and requests for quotations) are more suitable for corrupt collusion. This might explain why the prices of repeat contracts in this case were higher. On the contrary, the prices of repeat contracts were lower compared to one-time procurement in the case of more transparent e-auctions
Added: Jan 26, 2015
Working paper
Sheiman I. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 18/PA/2014.
Many countries have recently started the search for new payments methods with the specific objective to encourage integration in health care delivery – teamwork of providers, their coordination and continuity of care. This paper suggests the typology of three major integrated payment methods – pay-for-performance, episode based bundled payment and global payment. A brief overview of these methods in the USA and Europe, including Russia, indicates that there is still no strong evidence of their effects on integration and other dimensions of medical service delivery performance. It is argued that relative to other integrated methods global payment is the most promising method, since it provides incentives for comprehensive organizational changes. The major pre-conditions for global payment implementation are risk bearing in integrated networks, shared savings schemes, performance transparency system, infrastructure for coordination and collaboration. It is also argued that global payment is hard to implement – mostly due to a high probability of excessive financial risks placed on providers in integrated networks. The activities to mitigate these risks are discussed based on the approaches piloted in Russia.
Added: Sep 26, 2014
Working paper
Vinogradov D., Shadrina E. V., Doroshenko M. E. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. WP BRP 27/PA/2015.
Knowledge intensive business services (KIBS) constitute a rapidly developing sector of modern economies. Numerous studies suggest that KIBS facilitate knowledge exchange between providers and consumers, and improve the innovativeness of the latter. However, because KIBS are strongly reliant on service co-production by the customer and provider working in partnership, intensive cooperation between the two parties is essential. Public procurement may provide supporting mechanisms for this sector, both directly (by purchasing services) and indirectly (by demonstrating the benefits of KIBS consumption, which may stimulate the demand for them from the private sector). Yet legislative constraints on the types of admissible public procurement mechanisms may have an undesirable effect on the provider selection, making it possible that services are purchased not from the most efficient or the most suitable provider. Along with that, public bodies are known to be managerially less efficient than private firms, partly due to a distorted system of incentives. These key differences between the public and private sectors motivated us to study the efficiency of public procurement of KIBS. In particular, we find that consumers of KIBS in the public sector report lower satisfaction from KIBS and admit a lower level of co-production than the private sector. Our main recommendations refer to the optimal choice of procurement mechanisms and the system of incentives in public institutions
Added: Apr 29, 2015
Working paper
Vinogradov D., Shadrina E. V., Doroshenko M. E. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. WP BRP 27/PA/2015.
Knowledge intensive business services (KIBS) are a rapidly developing sector of modern economies. Numerous studies suggest that KIBS facilitate knowledge exchange between providers and consumers, and improve the innovativeness of the latter. However, because KIBS are strongly reliant on service co-production by the customer and provider working in partnership, intensive cooperation between the two parties is essential. Public procurement may offer supporting mechanisms for this sector, both directly (by purchasing services) and indirectly (by demonstrating the benefits of KIBS consumption, which may stimulate a demand for them from the private sector). Yet, legislative constraints on the types of admissible public procurement mechanisms may have an undesirable effect on the provider selection, meaning that services may not be purchased from the most efficient or the most suitable provider. Alongside this, public bodies are known to be managerially less efficient than private firms, partly due to their distorted system of incentives. These key differences between the public and private sectors motivated us to study the efficiency of publicly procuring KIBS. In particular, we find that consumers of KIBS in the public sector report lower satisfaction from KIBS and admit a lower level of co-production than the private sector. Our main recommendations refer to the optimal choice of procurement mechanisms and the system of incentives in public institutions.
Added: Jun 27, 2018
Working paper
Avdasheva S. B., Kryuchkova P. V. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. 05.
Law enforcement by regulatory authorities on complaints may replicate not only advantages but also disadvantages of both public and private enforcement. In Russian antitrust enforcement there are strong incentives to open investigations on almost every complaint. The increasing number of complaints and investigations decreases both the resources available per investigation and the standards of proof. It also distorts the structure of enforcement, increases the probability of both wrongful convictions and wrongful acquittals, and lowers deterrence. Statistics of antitrust enforcement in the Russian Federation, including Russian regions, highlight the importance of complaints for making decisions on whether to open investigations and the positive dependence of convictions on the number of investigations.
Added: Nov 13, 2013
Working paper
Yusupova G. F. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. WP BRP 06/PA/2012.
The empirical assessment of leniency program (LP) in Russia show the effects of changes in the rules on the behavior of market participants. In this paper we test hypotheses about LP enforcement against the characteristics of cartels: their subject, duration and the number of participants. We show that LP in Russia make enforcement of the behavior of market participants less effective and accordingly reduces cartel discoveries. However the reforms of Program in 2009 gives some positive results
Added: Nov 5, 2013
Working paper
Plusnin J., Slobodskoy-Plusnin J. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2013
  The article summarizes the data from a few tens of interviews with entrepreneurs – representatives of a small business. The purpose of the interview was to discover expectations and suggestions from entrepreneurs to the local and state government. Interview data reveal the profound contradictions between the business and the authorities. These contradictions are based not only on results of the local administration’s actions, but also on the specific current status of local (self-)government that makes it impossible to effectively interact with the business. On the other hand, the development of local businesses has led to a peculiar configuration of the business community, also making it difficult to communicate with the authorities. As a result is trying to get protection from the local government that leads to inadmissible merging of business and government and monopolizing of business in almost every district. Direct consequences of such a merging are government inefficiency, lack of incentives for business development, and stagnation. Some “evolutionary stable strategy” has been developed, that does not allow winning any of the actors yet saving them from loses in competition with the outside players. Understanding of the inefficiency and dead-end of such an interaction by some entrepreneurs forces them to raise claims to local authority. Interviews analyses resulted in the list of complaints and suggestions on how to optimize an interaction between the local business and local authorities.
Added: May 14, 2013
Working paper
Zasimova L. S., Sheluntcova M., Kalinin A. M. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. WP BRP 25/PA/2015.
An aging population and the low involvement of elderlies in social activities makes the measurement of active aging an important research question, since it gives an insight into the potential of the elderly. Policy agendas in many countries stress the need for active aging in terms of improved health and a greater degree of autonomy. This paper aims to investigate the potential and limits of international comparison for setting policy goals concerning older adults. We use World Health Organization (WHO) micro data from the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) to measure active aging in five countries demonstrating similar macroeconomic outcomes, namely Russia, India, China, South Africa and Mexico. Following the WHO concept of active aging, we select indicators for three components of active aging (health, participation in social activities, and security) and aggregate them into three sub-indices, which become the outcome index of active aging. Our findings show significant variation in the proportion of actively aging individuals in selected countries (from 89% in China to 44% in South Africa) and in the sub-indices of health, participation and security. We compare our results with macro-level data and conclude that the active aging index could be a useful tool for measuring the proportion of actively aging individuals and understanding the challenges for policy makers in each country. However, one should understand the limits of micro-level data analysis and interpret the results carefully. We also argue that for international comparisons, active aging indexes should be studied with respect to the activity of non-elderlies in each country.
Added: Mar 26, 2015
Working paper
Zasimova L. S., Sheluntcova M. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 11.
Rising life expectancy and an aging population highlight the need for appropriate government policies to transform of the role of the elderly from a dependent part of the population to an economically active one. This paper aims to measure active aging of the elderly in Russia. We review definitions of active aging and base our research on the concept of the World Health Organization. Active aging is characterized by three components: health, participation, and security. We select indicators for these components and aggregate them into three sub-indexes which become the outcome index of active aging. As a result, the sample is divided into two groups of elderly people in Russia, “actively aging” and “inactively aging”. The empirical research is based on the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE). Our findings show that 70% of the elderly population are at the intersection of “health” and “participation in social activities”; 61,2% between “health” and “security”; 73,5% between “security” and “participation in social activities”. Overall, 58,5% of Russian senior citizens meet all three criteria of active aging, thus creating a great challenge for policy response.
Added: Feb 18, 2014
Working paper
Leshukov O., Lisyutkin M. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2014
Significant differentiation and heterogeneity of Russian regional higher education systems requires thoughtful federal policy taking into account peculiarities and unique features of the regional socio-economic situations. The research presented in the paper had its key goal in the elaboration of the rationale and basis for the “regionalization” of public policy in Russian higher education. Different approaches to the development of regional higher education systems in Russia are explored in the paper. The analysis is based on the presupposition that the governance of higher education system should take into account regional socio-economic development priorities. The typology of regional higher education systems in Russia is presented in the paper. The consideration of the types in the context of the regional socio-economic situations allowed authors to offer public policy mechanisms for the development of regional higher education systems in the context of compliance with the objectives of regional development.
Added: Nov 17, 2014
Working paper
Shishkin S., Burdyak A., Potapchik E. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. WP BRP 09/PA/2013.
The opportunity for patient choice in the health care system in CIS countries was created by the partial destruction of the referral system and the development of paid medical services. The data of two population surveys conducted in Russia in 2009 and 2011 show that patient choice of medical facility and physician is taking place in the post-Semashko health care system, and it is not restricted to the area of paid medical services. However for the majority of population the choice of medical facility and physician is not a necessity. Part of reason for patient choice is caused by the failure of the patient referral system to ensure the necessary treatment. For some Russian citizens, the choice of health care provider is a means to obtain better quality care, and in this respect the enhancement of patient choice is leading to the improved efficiency of the emerging health care system.
Added: Dec 30, 2013
1 2