• A
  • A
  • A
  • ABC
  • ABC
  • ABC
  • А
  • А
  • А
  • А
  • А
Regular version of the site
Of all publications in the section: 66
Sort:
by name
by year
Working paper
Rykov Y., Sinyavskaya Y., Koltsova O. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2018. No. 83/SOC/2018 .
Social capital is often accumulated not only in ego-networks, but in larger communities. However, these communities, although seemingly visible through social media, are still underresearched. In this work, we examine аn online friendship network spanning over an entire middle-size city amounting to 194,601 users of VK social network site. We find that the share of user’s in-city friends contributes to his/her brokerage and information influence abilities. More importantly, the number of user’s online groups - that is, user’s access to diverse or disconnected communities - is positively related with his/her bridging capital, and negatively with the bonding capital. Finally, our research questions the validity of some of the existing social capital measures. Highlights  All-city network represents a mixture of small-world and scale-free graph models  Longer SNS use gives a cumulative advantage for making additional friendship ties  Participation in more SNS groups increases a user's online bridging social capital  The number of likes on a user’s wall is positively associated with online bridging  The share of local friends among all user’s VK friends increases online bridging
Added: Nov 30, 2018
Working paper
Kostenko V., Kuzmichev P., Ponarin E. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 50.
This paper analyzes the relationship between support of democracy and attitudes to human rights: in particular, support for gender equality in the countries covered by the first wave of the Arab Barometer project. We used cluster analysis and negative binomial regression modeling to show that, unlike in most countries of the world, the correlation between support of democracy and gender equality is very low in Arab countries. There is a group of people in the region who support both democracy and gender equality, but they are a small group (about 17% of the population) of elderly and middle-aged people characterized by higher education and social status. A substantial number of poorly educated males express support for democracy, but not for gender equality. Many people (especially young males aged 25-35 in 2007) are against both gender equality and democracy. Younger people tend to be both better educated and more conservative -- those belonging to the 25-34 age group are the most patriarchal in their gender attitudes. Controlling for age, education still has a positive effect on gender equality attitudes. Nevertheless, this phenomenon probably means that there are two simultaneous processes going on in the Middle East. On the one hand, people are becoming more educated, urbanized etc., which means the continuation of modernization. On the other hand, we observed a certain retrogression of social values.
Added: Aug 27, 2014
Working paper
Sokolov B. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. WP BRP 66/SOC/2015.
This paper presents a new approach to the measurement of attitudinal polarization for cross-national or repeated cross-sectional studies. The proposed approach is a two-stage one. At the first step, order-constrained Latent Class Analysis (LCA) is used to identify a categorical latent construct underlying a set of observed items. Basing on the best LCA solution, class membership is assigned for each individual in the sample. At the second step, a broad family of categorical polarization indices may be computed for that categorical latent scale in respect to any grouping variable of interest (e.g., country of living, or wave of study). The data from the 4th wave of the European Values Study are used, and polarization between survival and self-expression values in 28 European countries is measured. The resulting polarization scores are used to test a hypothesis assuming positive aggregate-level association between values polarization and support for radical right parties and ideologies
Added: Dec 15, 2015
Working paper
Magun V., Rudnev M. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. WP BRP 23SOC2013.
The basic values of the Russian population and the population of 31 European countries were compared with data obtained by the Schwartz Questionnaire, embedded into the fourth round of the European Social Survey. Conclusions about similarities and differences of basic human values between Russia and other European countries confirm the thesis that Russia is a country which shares a general logic of cultural and social development with the rest of the world and which has a lot in common with countries of a similar economic level and recent political history. In most value comparisons, Russia appeared to be closer to Post-Communist and Mediterranean countries than to Western European or Nordic countries. The fact that Russians are less committed than most Europeans to the values of caring, tolerance, equality, and ecology, and, conversely, more committed than most Europeans to the competitive “zero-sum” values of personal success, wealth, and power, confirms the validity of current moral criticisms of mass values and morals in Russia. The other disturbing fact is the relatively low commitment of Russians to the values of Openness to Change and, conversely, a strong focus on Conservation. So basic values of Russians create a cultural barrier to the development of an innovation-based economy and to the societal development as a whole. Thanks to a shift from country-level analysis to individual- and group-level analysis, we challenge the notion of the “average Russian” and demonstrate that the Russian value majority consists of two subtypes. Russia also has a sizable value minority and its members share values non-typical for most Russians. Two value minorities, which embrace 19% of the Russian population, are more committed to values of Openness and Self-Transcendence than the rest of the Russian population. These value groups are typical for European countries with more prosperous and happy populations and we can hypothesize that in Russia they are also resource groups for the country’s advancement.
Added: Oct 4, 2013
Working paper
Sakevich Victoria I., Denisov B. P. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 42/SOC/2014.
The paper considers the changes in major proximate determinants of fertility in Russia within the framework of demographic transition theory and Bongaarts approach to fertility analysis. After World War II Russian fertility became fully controlled process. The complex interplay of abortion and contraception during the Soviet period resulted in a very high abortion level. Russian government has almost never supported and promoted family planning as alternative to abortion. However couple's preferences of small offspring appeared more powerful than the will of authorities. Current trends show that albeit lack of governmental support the society itself is evolving towards more humanistic and effective birth control. Estimates made upon recent surveys' data confirm the validity of official statistics and thus the reality of favorable trend of abortion decline.
Added: May 13, 2014
Working paper
Maslinsky K. A., Koltsov S., Koltsova O. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. 14.
This study investigates the topical structure of the Russian-language blog-publishing service LiveJournal and the change in it that occurred in the course of the public activity after the State Duma elections in December 2011 as compared to a previous “control” period (November 27 – December 27 and August 15 – September 15 respectively). The data for both periods have been automatically obtained from 2000 top-rated blogs on the basis of ratings published by LiveJournal. Unsupervised topic modelling of the sampled posts was done using Latent Dirichlet Allocation algorithm. In December 2011 we found considerable growth in weights of all the topics closely associated with the discussion of voting results and protests, accompanied by a more moderate decrease in the majority of other social topics.The number of users who started posting texts that may be conventionally qualified as political according to LDA in December 2011, considerably outnumbers the number of those who ceased posting political items, which may indicate the existence of a blogger mobilization process in political topics.
Added: Feb 1, 2013
Working paper
Koltsova O., Koltsov S., Nikolenko S. I. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. WP BRP 33/SOC/2013.
We study the structure of online discussions in order to uncover latent communities of socially important debate. Our research reveals that discussion communities defined by mutual commenting in the Russian language blogosphere are centered mainly around blog authors as opinion leaders and, to a lesser extent, around a shared topic or topics. We have derived these conclusions from the dataset of 17386 full text posts written by top 2000 LiveJournal bloggers and over 520,000 comments that result in about 4.5 million edges in the network of co-commenting  
Added: Jan 14, 2014
Working paper
Ibragimova D. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 41/SOC/2014.
The research deals with the analysis of consumer expectations of Russian population which are mediated by many socio-demographic characteristics: income, age, education, place of residence, sex, etc. The paper focuses on influence on variable “age” because it is itself rather complex. First, actual age represents biological characteristics. Second, “age” represents a unique birth cohort in the terms of socialization and formation of life experience. Finally, all ages are influence by a time period effect that reflects the socio-political, economic, and informational phenomena of the macro environment. The solving of the problem of "identification" (i.e. the separation of these three effects) which inevitably arises in case of cohort analysis, based on theoretical views concerning the character of consumer expectations and the results of empirical testing. That shows the aggregated Consumer Sentiment Index reflects the general socio-economic situation in a country at a certain time and allows us to use the CSI as a distillation of a specific time moment. The information base of research is the data of consumer survey although not the panel, but conducted over a 15-year period on the same methodology and sample. All 79 waves of cross-section data (from May 1996 to September 2009) were converted into a “quasi-longitudinal design”, the total sample of dataset was 182,507 respondents. The regression analysis demonstrates that belonging to a cohort actually significantly determines consumer sentiments. However, the nonlinear correlation describing such dependence showed that an increase of optimism/pessimism concerning the economic and social development of the country happens non-uniformly from one cohort to another. In addition, the article attempts to implement approach to differentiation of generations, is not based on age differences, and the relationship with historical events. The research shows that an indicator such as the CSI could be one instrument for defining the time boundaries of the generations.
Added: May 12, 2014
Working paper
Kotelnikova Z. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2014
The majority of Russians believe that counterfeit alcohol may cause death. Nevertheless, alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in contemporary Russia as are branded clothes, accessories and audio products. This paper aims to reveal whether counterfeit alcohol consumers are distinctive in terms of structure and culture. It investigates the prevalence and structure of counterfeit alcohol purchasing and consumption; attitudes and beliefs about counterfeit alcohol; and predictors of counterfeit alcohol consumption. The research is based on the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE), an annual nationwide panel survey designed to monitor the health and economic welfare of households and individuals in the Russian Federation. The research findings demonstrate that cultural and structural factors contribute a lot to the consumption of counterfeit alcohol. Counterfeit alcohol consumption is associated with hazardous alcohol drinkers and homemade alcohol drinkers who tend to ignore trademarks and the taste of alcoholic beverages. Blur counterfeiting is a characteristic of hazardous alcohol drinkers and vodka-lovers who are inclined to be price sensitive and to ignore brands. Social networks play a significant role in consumption of counterfeit alcohol. Counterfeit alcohol consumers are highly likely to represent lower classes.
Added: Aug 8, 2014
Working paper
Yastrebov G., Bessudnov A., Pinskaya М. et al. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 55.
This study focuses on how social contexts promote disparities in academic performance between Russian high schools. In particular, we investigate how a school’s average Unified State Examination (USE) scores in Russian and mathematics relate to the social composition of its student body, its material and human resources, and local deprivation. We develop a two-level hierarchical regression model to analyze data from school profiles collected in two Russian regions (Yaroslavskaya Oblast’ and Moskovskaya Oblast’) during the 2011-12 academic year. Both social characteristics of the student body and the school’s material and human resources were associated with academic performance. However, after controlling for the characteristics of pupils and schools, our study did not discover any significant independent effects of the local context. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of these findings with regard to developing contextualized measures of academic performance in Russia, the limitations of current research and suggest several possibilities for its empirical development.
Added: Dec 3, 2014
Working paper
Krasnopolskaya I. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2014
This paper is devoted to identifying and analyzing the role of corporate volunteering in functioning as the infrastructure of volunteer activity in Russia and the influence of employee civil engagement. Four main functions of third-sector infrastructure are used in this article: motivation and mobilization, organization and support of civil activity, education and socialization, representation and interests protection, as well as net construction and communications. The theoretical background of the research methods lie in the institutional treatment of corporate social responsibility. The role of corporate volunteering in employee civic engagement based on a comparison of the employees who participate in volunteering events and those who do not is examined in detail. Based on the results of binary logistic regression analysis, we conclude that employee participation in corporate volunteering positively influences their civil engagement outside the corporation and satisfaction with various aspects of one’s life. Corporate volunteers (n=399) are statistically more likely to report civil engagement and personal happiness and satisfaction than employees who do not take part in corporate volunteering events (n=402). Corporate volunteering is positively related with current and future civil engagement, including monetary donations.   
Added: Oct 21, 2014
Working paper
Kravtsova Maria, Oshchepkov A. Y., Welzel C. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 34.
Using World Values Survey data from dozens of countries around the world, this article analyzes the relationship between postmaterialist values and attitudes towards bribery in a multi-level framework. This is an inherently interesting and under-researched topic because the various propensities attributed to postmaterialism lead to conflicting expectations about how these values affect attitudes towards bribery. On one hand, the alleged tendency of postmaterialists towards impartiality should lead them to condemn bribery. On the other hand, condemning bribery is a social desirability issue and postmaterialists are known to be less susceptible to desirability pressures and more relaxed about norm deviations. From this point of view, postmaterialists might react more tolerant to bribery. Reflecting these conflicting expectations, we obtain an ambivalent result, evident in an inverted U-shaped relationship: as we move from pure materialism to mixed positions, people tend to justify bribery more but then moving from mixed positions to pure postmaterialism, people become again more dismissive of bribery. What is more, the demographic prevalence of postmaterialists in a country moderates these values’ effect on bribery: where postmaterialists are more prevalent, the disapproving effect on bribery outweighs the approving effect. This finding contributes to a better understanding of the pronounced negative correlation between corruption and postmaterialism at the country level and has some important implications.
Added: Jan 24, 2014
Working paper
Равлик М. В. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 52/SOC/2014.
This paper addresses the determinants of migration between countries. Special emphasis is placed on which factors attract immigrants. This paper is the first to analyse this question in an integrated framework that takes into account the characteristics of both the origin and destination countries of migration. The findings confirm previous findings, however, in a broader and more compelling frame given the study’s unique dyadic approach to the analysis of migration patterns. Migrants are more attracted to countries with a common colonial history but, then, among these, prefer countries that offer the better living conditions and rule of law.
Added: Oct 2, 2014
Working paper
Zhirkov K. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 35/SOC/2014.
The present study examines survey data from 45 countries by the means of factor and regression analyses in order to understand the nature and causes of anti-Americanism. Empirical results reveal a clear distinction between cultural and political anti-Americanism. The former involves negative attitudes towards American culture and its global spread, whereas the latter is specifically focused on disapproval of the U.S. foreign policies. The two forms of anti-Americanism also differ in their relationship to socioeconomic development. Cultural anti-Americanism is most widespread in countries with average levels of Human Development Index, whereas political anti-Americanism is stronger in the most developed societies. This study finds that Muslim societies are characterized by higher levels of both cultural and political anti-Americanism. On the whole, these findings indicate that anti-Americanism follows consistent country-level patterns and likely has universal roots which should be studied within a comparative framework.
Added: May 28, 2014
Working paper
Moskovskaya A. A., Oberemko O. A., Silaeva V. et al. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. WP BRP 26/SOC/2013.
Professional associations in Russia are to some extent novices in contemporary professional regulation. Only small part of them can play significant role in enforcement of professional control (representing professional community in front of other stakeholders, adopting professional standards, ensuring market closure, protecting of prevalence of professional ethics etc.). Partially that comes from the lack of experience of self-regulation that professions have in the Russian history and sharp invasion of the global market in the 1990-es, partially that follows tradition of state predominance in economy and society. During the last two decades a mass of organizations arose in Russia calling themselves professional associations, guilds, societies and unions. The task to understand who they are, whether they can and they ought to represent professional community and what are their ways of professional self-regulation became now a pressing practical problem and an interesting research task. The object of this research is mapping the field of variety of non-government organizations that claim institutional control as professional associations in order to clarify the following issues: - What are the main forms of professional associations by their qualitative characteristics - What are their actual means and feasible opportunities to achieve professional control in their field of expertise or at least influence it – What are the main limits of professional self-regulation they dispose and whether there are any alternative forms of professional regulation in certain professional areas  
Added: Nov 22, 2013
Working paper
Ivaniushina V. A., Alexandrov D. A. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 43.
In this study we focus on the influence of peers on adolescents academic achievement. Specifically, how the learning motivation of peers is related to a student's school grades. We use multilevel regression to analyze the influence of peers on different levels of social circles: school, class, personal network, and compare the effects of "assigned friends" and "chosen friends". The methods of social network analysis are used to define the personal network of a student in different ways: cliques, complete ego networks, and mutual ego networks. We demonstrate that the model improves considerably when the level of personal networks is included between individual and class levels. The learning motivation of a student's friends (defined as a clique or ego network) has an important influence on the student’s school performance, net of student’s personal characteristics.
Added: Jun 3, 2014
Working paper
Shcherbak A. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2012. No. 05.
Is tolerance important for modernization? What can one say about the relationship and causality between tolerance and modernization? It is assumed that an increase in tolerance, expressed as a tolerant attitude towards homosexuality, gender equality, and a decrease in xenophobia, has a significant impact on modernization. Here modernization is understood in a ―narrow‖ sense, referring to economic and technological modernization. The author uses the ―cultural modernization‖ approaches of R.Inglehart and the ―creative class‖ concept of R.Florida. Based on data from 55 countries, the author concludes that tolerance does have a significant impact on modernization, with gender equality being the most predictive factor and proving to be important in three groups of compared models (Index of Modernization, Innovation Index, and Investment Index). A tolerant attitude towards homosexuals and a decrease in xenophobia play a less significant role. Gender equality is an important predictor for modernization because women are in the majority – not the minority – and lowering entry barriers for women leads to their inclusion in a post-industrial economy. The results show that this is extremely important for economic modernization. Two distinct patterns of modernization are revealed: A tolerant model and a catching-up model. The former model focuses on innovation, high levels of tolerance, and strong institutions, while the latter focuses on investment, a lower-level of tolerance, and weak political institutions. Institutions do matter – they seem to be a causal mechanism in the relationship between tolerance and modernization. Institutions play a significant role in the tolerant model, where a post-industrial economy is associated with a post-industrial society. However, some countries try to build a post-industrial economy without building a post-industrial society, putting the main emphasis not on innovation, but on higher investment rates.
Added: Aug 28, 2012
Working paper
Tatarko A., Mironova A. A., Chuvashov S. V. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. WP BRP 63/SOC/2015.
The research is devoted to the consideration of the impact of ethnic diversity on social capital in the Russian context. Theoretical studies are based on Putnam’s hypothesis (Putnam, 2007) related to the impact of ethnic heterogeneity on social capital, as well as a number of empirical studies performed in this field in different countries. In the study “bridging” (generalized trust, norms of ethnic tolerance) and “bonding” (formal and informal networks) components of social capital are considered as dependent variables. Empirical basis of a representative survey was compiled in two multicultural regions of Russia (N = 2061). To assess the level of ethnic diversity a specific indicator (Ethnic Diversity Index – EDI) was calculated based on the results of the latest National Population Census. Data were processed using two-level structural equitation modeling. The results showed that ethnic diversity did not affect adversely the social capital of Russia, as had been assumed in Putnam’s hypothesis. In particular, Russia's ethnic diversity positively influences norms of ethnic tolerance and informal networks and does not affect penalized trust and formal networks. The article discusses the reasons for these results.
Added: Nov 29, 2014
Working paper
Scherbak A. N. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2015
Considering diet as often a product of adaptation to geographic environment, this paper suggests that not only amount of food (food abundance) is important, but what kind of foods people eat may also affect social change. One of the reasons for variation in diet is food intolerances as a result of adaptation to the environment. This paper investigates one case – lactase persistence. This trait is associated with different genotypes of LCT gene. Lactase persistence is mostly spread among northern Europeans, and is also found among some African and Asian nomadic populations. Such unique trait is usually explained in the gene-culture coevolution framework: selective pressure for it had to be followed by expansion of dairying and herding. Empirical analysis based on 78 populations reveals strong and positive association between share of lactase persistent population and distribution of emancipative values. Two causal mechanisms are suggested: a) demographic trends (lower fertility and lower child mortality in lactose tolerant societies) and b) specific type of agriculture based on integration of crop growing and cattle husbandry (higher urban population rate in lactose tolerant societies).
Added: Sep 17, 2015
Working paper
Zudina A. A. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. 24/SOC/2013.
This article addresses the elaboration of a new approach to informal employment research based on analyzing subjective social status. In spite of numerous studies conducted over the past 40 years many questions still exist in the field of informal employment research. The heterogeneous nature of activities incorporated into the concept of “informality” defines the ambiguity of its impact on the economy and society. Thus, little is actually known about the socioeconomic position of informal workers and the nature of informal employment. Is informality a kind of stratifying mechanism embedded in the social structure that changes the position of the informally employed, or not? The so-called “direct” approach based on analyzing levels of income was considered to be an inappropriate framework and thus indicated that the consequences of informal employment need to be further analyzed together with indirect – subjective – measures. The present paper discusses methodological issues and presents results concerning the subjective social position of informally employed workers in contrast to formal workers, the unemployed, and the economically inactive population. The study was carried out on the basis of a large nationally representative panel: the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of the Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE) for 2000-2010. The existence of three-tier informal employment in Russia is revealed with self-employment being better off than formal employment and informal wage and salary work. No significant difference between informal wage and salary work and formal employment in terms of subjective social status is found. Thereby, one can suppose that the difference between types of employment is not embedded in the social structure at all. Taken as an indirect indicator of the quality formal employment in Russia, this could point to the great weakness of labor market institutions and the idle channels of social mobility of formal employment in Russia.
Added: Sep 9, 2013
Working paper
Biryukova S., Sinyavskaya O. V., Nurimanova I. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. WP BRP 68/SOC/2016.
From 2007 to 2014 total fertility rate in Russia increased from 1.42 to 1.75. To what extent this growth is related to a package of family policy measures introduced in 2007? Although the maternity (family) capital program is the most well-known innovation of the 2007 reform, we argue that the new rules of monthly childcare allowance assignment is its another major component. Since all measures were introduced simultaneously, it is only possible to estimate their cumulative effect on subsequent fertility behavior. Using panel Russian Generations and Gender Survey data collected in 2004, 2007 and 2011 this study assesses how family policy changes introduced in 2007 were related to the fertility behavior in Russia in recent years. We find a statistically significant increase in the chances of having second and subsequent births in September 2007 to Summer 2011 in comparison with the period of Summer 2004 to September 2007. We interpret that as a cumulative effect of the 2007 policy changes. We acknowledge that the observed effects might be related only to the calendar shifts in fertility behavior and further data and studies are needed to make any conclusions about completed fertility of the cohorts affected by 2007 family policy measures.
Added: Oct 5, 2015