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Of all publications in the section: 14
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Working paper
Kolosnitsyna M., Khorkina N., Volkov A. Public and Social Policy. WP BRP Series. НИУ ВШЭ, 2017. No. WP BRP 11/PSP/2017.
In economic theory, alcohol consumption is considered as an addictive and sometimes irrational behaviour. Such behaviour often leads to undesirable external effects: increasing crime rates, traffic and occupational accidents, fires, and domestic violence. That is why most countries facing high levels of alcohol intake apply special measures to reduce consumption and, as a result, the external effects. Recently, the same measures have also been put in place in Russia, including price rises and time restrictions on retail alcohol sales. This paper investigates the influence of these measures on crime indicators. The empirical study is based on an econometric analysis of panel data from Russian regions, 2003-2015. The results confirm the effectiveness of time restrictions on alcohol sales with regard to juvenile and adult crime. However, the increase of vodka prices due to increasing excise tax reduces juvenile crime but does not influence crime rates among adults.
Added: Oct 19, 2017
Working paper
Larionov A. Public and Social Policy. WP BRP Series. НИУ ВШЭ, 2017. No. WP BRP 10/PSP/2017.
This research explores the utility of using strategic indicators to track the performance of the Bank of Russia. This approach is used in international practice and has demonstrated its positive effect. Nowadays, the Bank of Russia has introduced one key indicator, the size of inflation, which has proven to be highly effective in terms of policy implications. This article argues that this approach could be extended to other strategic areas like banking regulation, financial regulation, and oversight of the national payment system, and offers ideas on improving the approach for a given target purpose. Second, the article demonstrates the potential utility of such an extension by focusing on financial stability. An empirical model of banking stability is developed based on factors originating in both the external and internal environment of the Bank of Russia. The results of the model suggest that a number of factors contribute to stability, which in turn suggests that the strategic indicators approach can play a useful role in this area
Added: Sep 1, 2017
Working paper
Balaeva O., Yakovlev A. A., Rodionova Y. et al. Public and Social Policy. WP BRP Series. НИУ ВШЭ, 2018. No. 20.
Public procurement costs evaluation is important both for procurement optimization at the company level and for evaluating the public procurement regulation system. This paper presents a survey-based methodological approach to public procurement costs evaluation at the macro level. We have modified the PwC approach and developed an alternative public procurement cost evaluation methodology at the macro level. The PwC methodology was adapted to developing and transitional economies and piloted on Russian data. Average costs of each type of procurement procedures implemented in 2016 were evaluated. A regression analysis of factors impacting public procurement costs evaluation revealed considerable differences between respondents who have and do not have experience with complex procurement procedures. Although the average overall costs of public procurements in Russia amounted to about 1% of the total value of concluded contracts, the figure stands at 6.6–8.1% for small purchases. This exceeds the economy from price decrease and calls for a need to simplify regulation of such procurements.
Added: Dec 15, 2018
Working paper
Shishkin S., Temnitsky A. Public and Social Policy. WP BRP Series. НИУ ВШЭ, 2017
The paper examines the changes in the physician’s motivation at work during the period of reforms the salary system started since 2008. These reforms have included a shift from fixed salary system to pay for performance remuneration as well as sufficient increase of salary. The data of six surveys of health workers implemented in 2007-2016 were used to reveal the hierarchy of physician’s motives at work and to track their changes during the period of time under consideration. The changes were minor, and the directions of these changes were rather opposite to the expected strengthening of financial motivation at work: the importance of the motive of earning money has moved from the first place. The share of doctors willing to work more and better on the condition of linking salary with labor contribution did not increase. In contrast, almost two-thirds of physicians believe that they are working on a high level of quality and performance. The majority of physicians desire to increase not a stimulating part of the salary but a base, fixed one. Doctors who receive bonuses for the intensity, quality and performance, and who have a higher amount of salary wish to see the share of fixed part of salary higher than it is now available. This is a clear indication of orientation of this professional to strengthening the protective function of the salary rather than to use increased opportunities for earning money.
Added: Jun 23, 2017
Working paper
Jaekel T. Public and Social Policy. WP BRP Series. НИУ ВШЭ, 2017. No. WP BRP 09/PSP/2017.
The motivation of civil servants has a considerable impact on their decision-making and thus the performance of a bureaucratic agency. This paper studies how innovative and error-correcting behavior of Russian public civil servants correlates with three types of motivation: public service motivation (PSM), power motivation (PM) and security motivation (SM). Civil servants with a higher level of PSM are expected to correct existing errors in standard operating procedures (SOP) and to introduce “new ways of doing things” (Fernandez and Moldogaziev 2013); and so to improve their organizations’ performance and citizens’ well-being by enhancing organizational learning. For empirical analysis the paper uses a new unique dataset with some 1,600 responses from a survey questionnaire among local civil servants in the Russian region of Leningrad. The results from regression analyses demonstrate that prosocial motivation (seven item scale, Cronbach’s alpha =0.72), power motivation (nine-item scale, Cronbach’s alpha=0.78), employee encouragement, empowerment practices, and citizens orientation are positively correlated with innovative and error-correcting. In contrast the level of security motivation and job satisfaction fail to achieve statistical significance throughout all models.
Added: May 15, 2017
Working paper
Gans-Morse J., Kalgin A., Klimenko A. et al. Public and Social Policy. WP BRP Series. НИУ ВШЭ, 2017. No. WP BRP 13/PSP/2017.
Throughout much of the world, corruption in the civil service undermines state capacity, impedes economic development, and saps citizens’ morale. But while its pernicious effects are widely recognized, the roots of corruption remain poorly understood. Whereas most studies on corruption’s origins focus on the incentives bureaucrats face once in office, this study contributes to a line of recently emerging research that considers the role of self-selection of citizens with a propensity for corruption into bureaucracies where corruption is known to be widespread. Drawing on a survey and experimental games conducted with students at an elite university in Moscow, Russia, we compare the attitudinal, behavioral, and demographic traits of students seeking public sector employment to the traits of their peers seeking jobs in the private sector. Contrary to studies conducted in other high-corruption contexts, such as India, we find surprising evidence that students who prefer a public sector career display less willingness to cheat or bribe in experimental games as well as higher levels of altruism. One interpretation of these findings is that corruption in Russia results from the transformation of bureaucrats’ behavior and attitudes after entering the civil service, rather than through a process of corrupt self-selection.
Added: Nov 17, 2017
Working paper
Jaekel T., Borshchevskiy G. Public and Social Policy. WP BRP Series. НИУ ВШЭ, 2017. No. WP BRP 07/PSP/2017.
Augmenting behavioral public administration to occupational intention research we investigate the link between three types of motivation, and the intention of students to work in civil service after graduation. We make detailed observations of the self-reported job preferences of 2nd public administration undergraduates in two prestigious universities in Moscow, Russian Federation. We report that federal civil service is the top destination for Russian PA undergraduates. We also report that working in federal civil service by far triumphs over regional public administration in terms of self-reported occupational intention. We also make in-depth observations of the expected utility underlying students’ job preferences. We use these observations to propose a general model of civil service job intention. The model posits that the intention to work in civil service after graduation results from two major sources: the perceived expectation from parents with a civil service background, and the expected utility from four benefits of public sector employment. We empirically demonstrate that public service motivation is positively correlated with the intention to work in civil service after graduation
Added: Mar 20, 2017
Working paper
Jaekel T. Public and Social Policy. WP BRP Series. НИУ ВШЭ, 2017. No. WP BRP 05/PSP/2017.
In my paper I analyze why some top-level public administrators invite a peer review to learn about the strengths and weaknesses of their agencies while others do not. A peer review is a light-touch voluntary benchmarking exercise conducted by a group of critical friends (peers). I propose a general model from which I derive a series of hypotheses about the role of organizational size, performance gaps, peer effects and strategic interaction at individual and organizational-level decision making. For hypotheses tests I examine a unique dataset of participation in the Corporate Peer Challenge Program in England between 2010 and 2015. The estimation approach is survival analysis. I find that poor archival performance of a council and peer evaluations in neighboring councils are positively correlated with inviting a peer review. However, significance level of both effects is above 10 per cent
Added: Mar 9, 2017
Working paper
Klimenko A., Kalgin A. Public and Social Policy. WP BRP Series. НИУ ВШЭ, 2018. No. 17/PSP/2018.
A vital aspect of improving governance involves spearheading its strategic dimension and making current policy activities more closely aligned with the goals and objectives of sustainable growth. At the same time, implementation of strategic management is associated with considerable costs for the drafting, cross-cutting coordination and monitoring of strategic planning documents. These costs are often not taken into account. This article aims at showing that the costs of developing strategic plans can be significant. This is confirmed by survey data that allowed for estimating costs of drafting strategic planning documents in Russia
Added: Apr 10, 2018
Working paper
Pishnyak A., Goriainova A., E.Tochilina. Public and Social Policy. WP BRP Series. НИУ ВШЭ, 2017. No. WP BRP 12/PSP/2017.
This study identifies the key determinants of the development of the assistive technologies market in Russia and the trends that are expected to determine the dynamics of the Russian market over the next 10-15 years.  Based on an analysis of international research experience and data obtained from in-depth interviews with Russian experts in areas associated with assistive technologies and devices (ATD, or technical rehabilitation aids (TRA)) (such as the manufacturers of assistive devices, representatives of the Federal Bureau of Medical and Social Expertise, representatives of disabled people's organizations and policy makers dealing with the issues related to the social support of disabled people), the key determinants of the market have been classified into demographic, economic, political, social, technological, and infrastructural.  The study of the determinants and trends is implemented in the context of their impact on the supply and demand for ATD, taking into account the fact that for various groups of the population demands are determined by different needs (from the desire for social inclusion to the desire to be independent) and the fact that supply of different types of assistive devices may be affected by various groups of factors.  The interaction of various agents operating in the ATD market in Russia is analyzed within the theoretical framework of Porter's five forces
Added: Nov 2, 2017
Working paper
Lyashok V. Public and Social Policy. WP BRP Series. НИУ ВШЭ, 2019. No. 22/PSP/2019.
This paper examines the impact of the 34% increase in pensions in Russia at the end of 2009 and the beginning of 2010 on the labor market participation of pensioners. Several particular features of the pension system in Russia allow us to estimate the net effect of income from such a reform. For evaluation, we used a method combining difference-in-difference and regression discontinuity methods. The results showed that real pension growth by a third reduced labor force participation rate by 6–7.1% for men and by 6–6.4% for women. The heterogeneity of the impact of this reform was also investigated. Estimates showed that the effect was lower for more educated people or those living in villages and was completely absent among those who rated their health as poor or very bad.
Added: Aug 8, 2019
Working paper
Kolosnitsyna M., Khorkina N., Lopatina M. Public and Social Policy. WP BRP Series. НИУ ВШЭ, 2018. No. WP BRP 21/PSP/2018.
Physical activity is considered today as a leading factor in health and well-being in developed countries. With decreasing levels of alcohol and tobacco consumption, widespread sedentary lifestyles have taken centre stage among the predictors of non-communicable diseases. That is why Russia, along with other countries, has adopted the “Physical activity strategy for the WHO European Region 2016–2025”. Young people are among the target groups of public policy promoting physical activity. This paper investigates physical activity among young people aged 15 to 24 years. The empirical study is based on a descriptive and econometric analysis of micro-data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), 2000–2016. The research shows that 50% of young men and 65% of young women do not exercise on a regular basis. Both for men and for women, the probability of physical activity is positively related to their educational level, household income, and residence in capital cities. Negative relations were found between the probability of physical activity and smoking, status of married person, and employed and non-employed status. The results for alcohol consumption, body mass index and self-assessed health are inconclusive for this age group. The results confirm the necessity of better-targeted public policy motivating physical activity in youth. Overall, policy measures motivating young people to take part in physical activity will have a long-term effect. Habits developed in youth often persist into adulthood. The result will be a gain in the health and longevity of the Russian population.
Added: Dec 29, 2018
Working paper
Mironova A. A., Prokofieva L. Public and Social Policy. WP BRP Series. НИУ ВШЭ, 2018
This paper investigates how households of various demographic compositions are involved in private intergenerational transfers in Russia. The authors provide a descriptive analysis of private exchanges using household surveys. The Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey—Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE, 2004, 2008, 2013), The Comprehensive Monitoring of Living Conditions (KOUG, Rosstat), The Survey of the Population Income and the Participation in Social Programs (VNDN, Rosstat). The study demonstrates that the demographic composition of households is an important predictor of household involvement in private exchanges of different goods and services. Single-person households and households represented by couples without children show their particular donor capacity in private intergenerational transfers. The recipients of private material transfers are primarily one-parent families and couples with under-age children. Multigenerational households and other households are also recipients of private material transfers. This paper demonstrates that the role of a household’s private exchange is related to their financial situation, but the role of private intergenerational transfers is not limited to giving assistance to the poor.
Added: Nov 24, 2016
Working paper
Sheiman I., Shevski V. Public and Social Policy. WP BRP Series. НИУ ВШЭ, 2017
The paper explores primary health care models in Russia and in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Starting with the similar model, they have taken totally different ways of primary health care transformation, including the role of general practitioner, multispecialty polyclinics and private sector. The comparison of this diversity, based on the conceptual framework of Primary Health Care Activity Monitor in Europe, demonstrated that the scores of primary care in Russia are relatively lower, particularly in the dimensions of accessibility, comprehensiveness, continuity and coordination of care. The score of the selected efficiency indicators is also relatively low. The major reasons for this are discussed, including the lack of strategic vision on the role of primary care, an excessive specialization of primary care and the delay with a shift to a general practitioner model. A debatable issue of primary care extended composition (the involvement of a growing number of specialists) is also addressed. The conceptual presumption that an extended composition presents new opportunities for more integrated care and better performance has not been supported by the evidence. Big multispecialty policlinics in Russia don’t demonstrate advantages over solo and group GP practices that dominate in CEE countries. The potential of polyclinics is not used because of the lack of specific activities for integration. It is argued that new specialists in the practices can strengthen primary care only when they support generalists rather than replace them. The lesson learnt from CEE countries is that substantial changes are needed to overcome the lagging status of primary care in Russia, including overcoming the excessive specialization of primary care, the replacement of district physicians by general practitioners, developing the forms of independent practices operating in parallel with polyclinics and competing with them.
Added: Mar 21, 2017