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Regular version of the site
Of all publications in the section: 82
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Working paper
Rusinova V. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2019. No. 87.
This article concentrates on two recent judgments issued by the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) Chambers, on Centrum för Rättvisa v. Sweden and Big Brother Watch and Others v. the United Kingdom, which expressly acknowledged that mass surveillance per se does not violate the Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. These judgments have been recently referred to the Grand Chamber, thus giving hope that the approach taken in respect of the launch of mass interception of communications and metadata has a chance to be revisited.  The author reveals whether this approach follows from the jurisprudence of the ECHR, how plausible the argumentation of this court is and how legalization for the bulk interception of data relates to the stance taken by the ECJ, which until that time was dealing with questions of the protection of the right to respect for private life and personal data using the general paths initially paved by the ECHR. The article discloses what precise content in terms of the protection of right to respect for private life lies behind the main findings on the compatibility of bulk interception per se with the Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, namely, in which part this court has refused to examine the measures undertaken by states in compliance with Article 8 and in which parts it has strengthened (or relaxed) already inferred criteria. Finally, taking into account the current position of the ECHR at this crossroads, the article dwells on causes that influenced the decisions of its Chambers.
Added: Apr 1, 2019
Working paper
Koltsova O., Pashakhin S. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2017. No. 79/SOC/2017.
Although conflict representation in media has been widely studied, few attempts have been made to perform large-scale comparisons of agendas in the media of conflicting parties, especially for armed country-level confrontations. In this paper, we introduce quantitative evidence of agenda divergence between the media of conflicting parties in the course of the Ukrainian crisis 2013-2014. Using 45,000 messages from the online newsfeeds of a Russian and a Ukrainian TV channels, we perform topic modelling coupled with qualitative analysis to reveal crisis-related topics, assess their salience and map evolution of attention of both channels to each of those topics. We find that the two channels produce fundamentally different agenda sequences: in particular, while the Russian channel pays little attention to confrontation between the Ukrainian government and the opposition before the regime change, the Ukrainian channel is less inclined to cover armed violence in East Ukraine and refugees after the regime change.
Added: Dec 29, 2017
Working paper
Olga V. Klimova. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2016. No. 135/HUM/2016.
This study will introduce and examine the work of Sugita Genpaku - "A monologue about foreign ships ("Yaso:dokuwa") - valuable historical document that introduces the reaction of the Japanese government to the expedition of Khvosotv and Davidov to Sakhalin in 1806-1807. It was written in the begiining of the 19th century, the period which is believed to be a turning point in the early Russo-Japanese relationship, when Russia began to be percieved as a major dangerous ebemy.
Added: Nov 28, 2016
Working paper
Bessmertnaya O. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2017. No. 158/HUM/2017.
The paper discusses constructing various versions of Muslim identity by politically opposite actors, the government and Muslim activists, involved in ‘placing’ Muslims in modernizing late-imperial Russia. The problem is approached through the extreme case of M.-B. Hadjetlaché (ca 1870-1929), a baptized Jew reinventing himself as Circassian and Muslim and as such working as a State agent against Muslim opposition and vice versa. His strategies of deceit and reasons to trust him in different cultural and political milieus reveal reciprocal and often shared Orientalisms of the ‘regimes of truth’ defining the processes under study.
Added: Nov 15, 2017
Working paper
Rodionova L., Kopnova E. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2017. No. 166/EC/2017.
This paper investigates the issue of food security as the basis for stable economic development using the example of North Africa. A statistical analysis of economic and financial factors in relation to the determinants of food security was carried out using a panel cointegrating model based on official international statistics of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Bank for 1991-2014. According to the results, population growth and the intensification of agricultural production, foreign trade and foreign direct investment play a crucial role in food security. The study revealed the relationship between food security and the development of the banking and financial systems in the region, and their degree of globalization. The strategy of a long-term investment policy pursued by the World Bank and FAO to combat hunger and poverty was justified. The methodology proposed can be used to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of policies to maintain food security in the regions of Africa.
Added: Jul 3, 2017
Working paper
Mitrofanova E. S. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2017. No. 78/SOC/2017.
The aim of this study is to compare the sociodemographic events marking the transition to adulthood in France, Estonia and Russia: first leaving parents, completion of education, first partnership, first marriage and first childbirth. We used the first waves of the Generations and Gender Survey for these three countries and an advanced method – Sequence Analysis. According to the Second Demographic Transition Theory, we expected a convergence in the sequencing, timing and tempo of the occurrence of target events. The results showed the slow convergence of sequences, but not of timing and tempo. Estonia and Russia are still close in the timing of the occurrence of events, but in tempo Estonia and France are more alike. The ages at which people start families in Estonia and Russia have decreased in younger generations in comparison with older ones, despite our expectation that they would increase. For the youngest generation (1970s), the time between leaving parents and becoming a parent is 5-7 years in France, 4-6 years in Estonia and 2-3 years in Russia. The sociodemographic behaviour of Estonians clearly positions them between Europe and Russia. Thus, the comparison of France, Estonia and Russia only partially confirms the Second Demographic Transition Theory.
Added: Dec 3, 2017
Working paper
Suslov D. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2014
Despite relative normalization of the US-Russia dialogue in early 2013 and their impressive cooperation on Syria and Iran later that year, the relations on the whole remain extremely fragile, volatile and at the same time stagnant. Their traditional agenda, based on arms control, is crumbling; leadership is both countries is not regarding positive US-Russian partnership as central for their vital national interests fulfillment; and the share of contradictions is growing. At best, this deprives the sides of many opportunities to advance their interests through cooperation. At worst, this could spark a new serious crisis by. The author argues that the fundamental problem of the US-Russia relations is their old-fashioned philosophy, centered on strategic deterrence and balancing. This philosophy, the paper claims, in its turn predetermines an agenda of the relations, which poorly reflects the real challenges that US and Russia face in the world of today and tomorrow. The author claims that the new philosophy of the US-Russia relations should be based not on strategic deterrence and strategic balance in a Cold war understanding, but on clear recognition that the sides need each other and need to cooperate in order to deal with real challenges and achieve real opportunities.
Added: Mar 29, 2015
Working paper
Zagirova F. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2017
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Added: Sep 4, 2017
Working paper
Malykhin N. I., Ushchev P. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2016. No. WP BRP 140/EC/2016.
We develop a simple partial-equilibrium model of endogenous city structure formation. No production externalities are at work, the only two forces shaping the spatial configurations of the city being love for variety (on the consumer side) and seeking for a better access to the market (on the firm side). We show that, unlike in existing models of a similar nature, our model generates clustering rather than co-agglomeration. Namely, if there are few firms relative to the urban population size, then firms tend to cluster at the city center, while consumers choose to reside on the outskirts. Otherwise, the opposite holds. Although a continuum of equilibrium city structures may emerge, we show that all spatial equilibria are segregated. In addition, the market outcome features spatial price dispersion, even though our framework does not involve imperfect information and search costs on the consumer side.
Added: Jan 22, 2018
Working paper
Bereznoy A. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2019
The purpose of this paper is to explore corporate foresight as a new important instrument within strategic management system of multinational corporations (MNCs). The author directly connects the recent rise of corporate foresight with MNCs’ growing need to fill the gaps of traditional corporate strategic management, struggling with the challenges of today’s global turbulent business-environment (known as VUCA world characterized by unprecedented volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity). From this perspective corporate foresight is capable to provide a number of viable responses. They include significant expansion of the horizon of MNCs’ long-term future vision, enhanced capabilities of business-environment scanning (identifying not only clearly visible trends but the so-called weak signals as well) and strengthening intra-firm communications in the course of strategy development process, thus contributing to the implementation capacity of multinational corporate team. Within analysis of actual corporate foresight practices of major multinationals special attention is attached to the common features of foresight organization (standard process phases, typical set of methods used) and peculiarities related mainly to different MNCs’ sector-specific environment characteristics, including complexity and dynamics of change. The attempt is also made to disclose the actual impact of corporate foresight activities on the effectiveness of the key functions of MNCs’ strategic management. The author draws the conclusion that corporate foresight is becoming a core element of the strategic management architecture of multinational business, striving to protect and strengthen its global market positioning in increasingly turbulent and unpredictable environment. For MNCs’ top management, trying to find the right strategic course in radically changing competitive landscape, this powerful tool is increasingly playing the same role as GPS navigator for car drivers.
Added: Oct 30, 2019
Working paper
Kokoreva M. S., Stepanova A. N., Повх К. С. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2017. No. 62/FE/2017.
This paper analyzes why high-tech firms are less likely to have debt in their capital structure. The share of zero-leverage firms increased in the US in the Software & Services, Hardware Equipment and the Pharmaceutical & Biotechnical industries which are treated as high-tech firms in our research. We divide the sample of US-based firms from the RUSSELL 3000 index for the period from 2004 to 2015 into two groups, one of them includes only high-tech firms, another contains all other firms from the sample. Traditional determinants of corporate structure such as size, age, asset tangibility, profitability and market-to-book ratio cannot fully explain why high-tech firms choose a zero-debt policy. We found that high-tech firms are more financially constrained than non-high-tech firms. The managerial entrenchment hypothesis could not predict zero-leverage for high-tech firms, but it can partially predict the debt conservatism of non-high-tech firms. The evidence shows that the excess cash hypothesis explains why unconstrained high-tech firms have zero-leverage but does not explain it for non-high-tech firms. Finally, we did not find a significant influence of the financial flexibility hypothesis for the decision of unconstrained high-tech firms to be unlevered, while for their non-high-tech counterparts this hypothesis fits.
Added: Oct 27, 2017
Working paper
Leshukov O., Platonova D., Semyonov D. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2015. No. WP BRP 29/EDU/2015 .
The paper explores the relation between the degree of competition between higher education institutions (HEIs) and efficiency of regional higher education systems taking the evidence from the Russian Federation. The choice of regional system of higher education as a unit of analysis explained by features of the Russian system of higher education, especially by “closeness” in borders of regions. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA) we investigate the efficiency of higher education systems in the regions and juxtapose the results with the extent of higher education competition within them. The analysis finds that within the overall sample the correlation is positive, but not striking. Yet, the extent of competition is connected with the efficiency of the regional sets of HEIs more in the regions that are less developed socio-economically. 
Added: Oct 19, 2015
Working paper
Lakshina V. V. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2019. No. 75/FE/2019 .
This paper uses the parsimonious method of embedding skewness in asset allocation based on the Taylor expansion of the investor utility function up to the third term and maximizing it by portfolio weights. This approach also enables us to consider investor risk aversion. Time-dependent multivariate asset moments are obtained via the GOGARCH volatility model with a normal-inverse Gaussian distribution for the error term. We explore the performance of the usual 2 moment utility and its 3 moment counterpart for a portfolio consisted of twenty assets traded on the Russian stock market. The results demonstrate that the 3 moment utility significantly outperforms the 2 moment utility by SD, MAD and CVaR for low levels of absolute risk aversion and by portfolio returns and investor utility level during the whole forecast period.
Added: Nov 14, 2019
Working paper
Kolesnik N. A. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2016. No. 54/MAN/2016.
Interpersonal face-to-face communication is the key value creation aspect of direct selling business model. Nowadays more and more sellers employ virtual communication channels.                                     The study explores whether usage of Internet technologies for communication with customers brings benefits or extinguish performance of direct selling individual distributors. The research is based on the quantitative analysis of country-wide paper based survey from 5694 respondents. The statistical analysis of total sample revealed that usage of Internet in general does not give advantages for distributors. However, usage of person-to-person Internet communication tool, such as e-mail, allows achieving better performance as measured by earnings per hour worked and earning per month. Surprising is the fact that the most successful young distributors (at the age under 35 years) do not use Internet for communication with customers at all.  For distributors over 35 years old neither Internet nor e-mail usages have got impact on performance. In rural areas users of Internet communication tools show lower influence on performance. In big cities usage of e-mail provides significantly higher performance, but general usage of Internet does not. Consequently, the effects from usage of Internet technologies for communication with customers are achieved in case of person-to-person communication. Moreover the most productive sellers give priority to the live communication.  
Added: Jun 15, 2015
Working paper
Samutina N. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2015. No. 99.
This paper focuses on fan fiction as a literary experience and especially on fan fiction readers’ receptive strategies. Methodologically, its approach is at the intersection of literary theory, theory of popular culture, and qualitative research into practices of communication within online communities. It presents a general characterization of fan fiction as a type of contemporary reading and writing, drawing upon the influential works by H. Jenkins, A. Dericho, K. Tosenberger, and others. Taking as an example the Russian Harry Potter fan fiction community, the paper poses a set of questions about meanings and contexts of immersive reading and affective reading, highly present among the reading strategies of this fan fiction community. The emotional reading of fan fiction communities is put into historical and theoretical context, with references to the works by researchers who analyzed and criticized the dichotomy of rational and affective reading, or «enchantment», in literary culture as one of the symptoms of modernity (M. Millner, M. Saler, R. Felski). The metaphor of «emotional landscapes of reading» is used in the paper for theorization of the reading strategies of fan fiction readers, and discussed through parallels with phenomenological theories of landscape. Among the «assemblage points of reading» of fan fiction, such specific elements are described as «selective reading», «kink reading», «first encounter with fan fiction texts» and «unpredictability»
Added: Apr 14, 2015
Working paper
Schmidt P., Tatarko A., Amerkhanova N. A. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2013. No. 12.
This article examines the relationship between value orientations and entrepreneurial intention according to the reasoned action approach. The empirical base of this study are the results of a representative survey conducted in 2 regions of Russia (Central Federal District and the North Caucasian Federal District). The effective total sample size was 2,058 and a subsample of 269 was selected. The subsample was composed of the respondents intending to open a business in the next 2 years. The results of research, carried out in the framework of reasoned action approach, allowed us to confirm the validity of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the Russian sample. It was also found that the values included in the block of self-direction autonomy of action are positively associated with the components of model of entrepreneurial planned behavior (attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control).
Added: Jul 5, 2013
Working paper
Krivosheya E. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2018
This article evaluates the efficiency of current MIF rates for the Russian market and identifies the effects of their changes. In order to estimate the demand of end users and end-user surpluses the study uses the adopted version of the Bedre-Defolie and Calvano (2013) model as well as representative samples of 800 traditional (offline) Russian merchants, 1500 Russian individuals and 7 banks from the top 20 that cover more than 80% of the Russian issuing and acquiring markets and the end-user benefits. Results confirm the efficiency of currently set MIF rates. Comparative statics analysis confirms that the changes in MIF rates never lead to a Pareto improvement, while the total surplus changes are asymmetric across different market parts. The article also shows that once the realistic assumptions are introduced to the models (e.g., information asymmetry, imperfect pass-through of changes) the end-user welfare is distorted more severely as a result of the MIF rates changes. The first-best policy for the Russian regulator and legislators is the use of alternative (non-tariff) stimulating measures for a cashless economy in order to isolate the effect of changes to the intended groups
Added: Jul 31, 2018
Working paper
Demeshev B., Malakhovskaya O. A. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2015. No. 105.
This paper evaluates the forecast performance of Bayesian vector autoregressions on Russian data. We estimate BVAR models  of different size and compare the accuracy of their out-of-sample forecasts with those obtained with unrestricted VARs and RW with drift. We show that many Russian macroeconomic indicators can be forecast by Bayesian VAR more accurately than by competitor models. However, contrary to several other studies, we do not confirm that relative forecast error monotonically decreases with the dimension of the sample. In half of those cases where BVAR appears to be the most accurate model, a small-dimensional BVAR outperforms its high-dimensional counterpart.
Added: Oct 23, 2015
Working paper
Inglehart R. F., Borinskaya S., Cotter A. et al. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2013. No. 31/SOC/2013.
This paper discusses correlations between certain genetic characterestics of the human populations and their aggregate levels of tolerance and happiness. We argue that a major cause of the systematic clustering of genetic characteristics may be climatic conditions linked with relatively high or low levels of parasite. This may lead certain populations to develop gene pools linked with different levels of avoidance of strangers, which helped shape different cultures, both of which eventually helped shape economic development. Still more recently, this combination of distinctive cultural and economic and perhaps genetic factors has led some societies to more readily adopt gender equality and high levels of social tolerance, than others. More tolerant societies tend to be happier because they create a more relaxed environment conducive to happiness.   
Added: Jul 15, 2014
Working paper
Arefiev N. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2016. No. 124/EC/2016.
The literature on graphical models and the literature on identification pursue similar goals, but do not use entirely each other’s results, because represent them in different languages. To ease the communication between these fields, I translate the most important theorems on identification of linear Gaussian Simultaneous Equations Models (SEMs) and Structural Vector Autoregressions (SVARs) into the language of graphical models. I propose graphical interpretations of the rank conditions for identification of SEMs, of the rank condition of Rubio-Ramirez et al (2010) for identification of SVARs with linear and nonlinear restrictions, and of the theory of partial identification for SVARs. Keywords: graphical models, identification, rank condition. JEL codes: C30   
Added: Apr 14, 2016
Working paper
Vinogradov A. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2016
The article is dedicated to the history of Christian Alania in the 10th century, including its Christianization in 914 and creation of the archbishopric. Narrative, sigillographic, epigraphic and archaeological sources are used. As result the history of Christian Alania in the 1st half of the 10th century is reconstructed.
Added: Apr 10, 2017