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Working paper

The Effects Of Prenatal Testosterone On Adult Wages: Evidence From Russian Rlms Data And Measured 2d:4d Digit Ratios

Kochergina E. V., Nye J. V., Yudkevich M. M., Orel E.
There is now a large literature on the correlates of prenatal androgen exposure and various individual measures of performance in sports, business, or schooling.  However, still there is a relatively limited evidence on the impact of prenatal androgens on life achievement. Using data from the Russian longitudinal survey and measured digit rations, we found that age-corrected market wages are correlated with low measured 2D:4D ratios signifying higher prenatal testosterone. Unlike earlier work on non-cognitive correlates of labor market wages, our findings indicate a clear-cut optimum 2D:4D ratio for women’s wages with higher and lower 2D:4D being associated with lowered wages.