Идея всеобщей истории в России: от классики к неоклассике
The Arctic sea-ice reached record lows in 2007, and again in 2012. In the international news media, these moments were reflected via striking images of polar bears, crumbling icechunks and the use of more alarmist metaphors about global climate change. Through these narratives, and despite the periodic disappearance of climate change from media reports due to issue fatigue, a sharper narrative of climate change has entered public discourse: a new global reality where the future is no longer a given. Going beyond media studies as well as descriptive or highly scientific accounts of the impacts of climate change in the Arctic, this book explores how both historical and contemporary mediations, scientific narratives and satellite technology simultaneously capture and reconstruct this new reality of the Anthropocene, where human activities shape the planet. By highlighting the linkagesbetween science, media, environmental change and geopolitics, the informed contributors to the volume invite the reader to reflect on what is local and what is global in today's connected mediatized world.
The article is devoted to the formation of everyday life history as a separate direction of modern historical science with its theoretical concepts. Its formation can be attributed to the last quarter of 18th century. The historian Jesuit P.-J.-B. Legrand d'Aussy was one of its first authors. The dynamics of development and methods of various "stories of daily occurrence" are considered in the paper. “L'histoire de la vie quotidenne” of Annales` school is focused on identification of mentality by means of everyday life features analysis of. German “Alltagsgeschichte” is actively using the microhistorical analysis. One of its major purpose is the verification and updating of the accepted historical concepts. “Alltagskulturgeschichte” is based on the theory of "lifestyles" as behavior archetypes in correlation with era conditions, social accessory and so forth.. In our country life and customs as every day repeating social practicians began to be studied since the 40-ies of the 19th century. Soviet everyday life history continued study life conditions, was very ideological. This historiographical direction quickly grew in the post-soviet history, taking various elements of foreign theories of the every day life history. A number of news directions in everyday life history with its own subjects of research arose (“revolutionary daily occurrence”, “working daily occurrence”, “gender daily occurrence” etc.). Russian history of city everyday life is in the focus of the article author. Specific features of this scientific sector, its problem areas, purposes, structure and an object of a research are explored. The comparative analysis of two historiographically significant works, published in Ekaterinburg (authors - Vladimir Mikityuk and Olga Yakhno) and Tomsk (Anisa Zheravina), is carried out for this purpose. The analysis demonstrated that the structure of city everyday life is due to citizens interests. These interests, in turn, were determined by those aspects of public life which provided their standards of living: city economics, infrastructure and as well as social one too (transport, post, education, medicine etc.), leisure and entertainment, criminality. The development of these aspects is also represented by historians as manifestation of the society modernization and its quintessence - the city. Research approaches of compared authors combine theoretical provisions of the Russian methodologists, first of all Natalia Pushkareva, and microhistory elements in the spirit of German Alltagsgeschichte. The source basis of city everyday life history is composed from press materials – headline news, statistics, journalism and commercial advertisements.
The article is devoted to the new interpretation of the world history, macro-processes and “longue durée” which has already been characterized as the “global” (“transnational”) turn. It aims to answer the questions what are the reasons of this “turn”, what are the real results of the newly born interest towards macro-processes, and finally, what is the present vision on the combination of the micro- and macro-scales in the historical research. The article locates a place of the “global” (“transnational”) turn in the contemporary historiographical situation with its paradoxical combination of the demand on the “decentralization” (first of all, on overcoming Eurocentrism) and simultaneously the Anglo-Americanization of knowledge. The results of the turn are obvious and are connected with a new critical attitude towards conventional stereotypical generalizations (here we should underline the achievements of the second half of 1970s – 2000s in the struggle with metanarratives) and generally with a growing amount of sources available to historians (digital humanities). The interest, on the one hand, to history transcending conventional national, regional, ethno-confessional boundaries (the enlargement of the spatial dimension) and, on the other hand, to the “longue durée” (the enlargement of the temporal dimension) does not mean abandoning micro-historical methods but present a new criterion: a case should reveal an important large trend. The failures of the turn are also clear: the publications race and the wish to correspond to the most fashionable historiographical trends may lead to the laxity of narrative and the weak source base of conclusions.