Challenges and new trends for nonprofit accountability in Russia
Hungary, Romania and Turkey, which previously had much in common (including huge external imbalances), now seem to be following different paths. Hungary was able to orchestrate a fast but painful transition to a positive current account (and thus stabilized its external debt/GDP ratio), Romania's current account deficit has decreased, although the balance remains negative, and Turkey is still struggling to finance its external deficit of over 7% of GDP.
The cumulative effects of a significantly changing climate are projected to have disastrous implications on the world’s natural habitats, and along with that, are projected to drastically increase the rate and likelihood of violent conflict globally, particularly in high-density, urban, poverty hotspots. Limiting the effects of a changing climate is thus critical in influencing multiple societal goals including equitable sustainable development, human health, biodiversity, food security and access to reliable energy sources.
This paper argues that the G7/8 has led global climate governance in ways other international environmental institutions have largely failed to do. It has done so largely by placing climate protection at the forefront of its policy objectives, alongside economic, health, energy and security goals, and reaching consensus repeatedly amongst its leaders on the importance of stabilizing emissions through energy efficiency, conservation, investment and technological innovation. Moreover, this chapter argues that the summit’s predominant capability, its constricted participation, democratic convergence and political cohesion – as well as the combined effects of global shocks – have all had positive impacts on the G7/8’s success in mitigating climate change.
Following a detailed process-tracing exercise over the summit’s 40-year history in which clear surges and retreats on global climate governance are outlined, this paper concludes by assessing the G7/8’s accountability record on climate mitigation and outlines a set of prescriptive recommendations, allowing for the delivery of a more tangible, coherent, results-driven accountability process for global climate governance.
Comment expliquer le ralentissement de la croissance russe en 2013 ? Quelles réformes ont été engagées dans les industries spatiales et navales ? La libération de l’ancien patron de Ioukos Mikhaïl Khodorkovski annonce-t-elle une ouverture politique de la part de Vladimir Poutine ? Dans quelles valeurs la société russe se reconnaît- elle ? Quels sont les enjeux de la réforme controversée de l’Académie des sciences ? La Russie a-t-elle une stratégie en Arctique ? Pourquoi les Jeux olympiques de Sotchi ont-ils coûté plus cher que prévu ? Les crises syrienne et ukrainienne illustrent-elles le « retour » du Kremlin sur la scène internationale ou les limites de son influence ?
« Russie 2014 », deuxième rapport annuel de l’Observatoire franco- russe, a pour ambition de fournir l’analyse la plus complète possible de la situation en Russie. Économie, politique intérieure et société, régions, politique étrangère et « miscellanées franco-russes », illustrant l’ancienneté, la diversité et la richesse exceptionnelle des relations entre nos deux pays, font de cet ouvrage un document de référence.
Dirigé par Arnaud Dubien, directeur de l’Observatoire franco-russe et ancien directeur de recherche à l’IRIS, « Russie 2014 » réunit les contributions d’une cinquantaine d’experts russes et français reconnus, parmi lesquels Alain Blum, Isabelle Facon, Evgueni Gavrilenkov, Sergueï Karaganov, Nathalie Lapina, Fiodor Loukianov, Rouslan Poukhov, Jean Radvanyi, Marie-Pierre Rey, Konstantin Simonov, Anne de Tinguy.
Since November 2008, G20 leaders have been meeting to discuss and act on matters of global urgency, with economic and financial matters taking centre stage. At their four summits, hundreds of commitments have been made, including refraining from raising new trade barriers, cracking down on tax havens, reforming voice and vote at the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, implementing higher and better quality capital requirements for banks, phasing out fossil fuel subsidies, cancelling debt in Haiti and stepping up efforts to reach the Millennium Development Goals. On the eve of the fifth summit in Seoul, it is important to ask what the G20 has done to take stock of the delivery of its growing number of promises.
This study investigates the benefits and costs to nonprofit organizations emanating from the adoption of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002). The Act was intended to stem financial malfeasance in the for-profit sector, nevertheless the study finds that about half the surveyed nonprofits adopted provisions of the Act and experienced effects in proportion to the level of adoption. About one in four of the nonprofits attributed benefits of better financial controls (27.3%) and reduced risk of accounting fraud (24.3%) to the adoption of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. With regard to the costs of adoption, more than one-third of the nonprofit organizations reported increased fees for external audit (36.5%), and about 15 percent cited “reallocation of resources from program to administrative expenses” (14.8%). This research discusses the unintended positive and negative effects of public policy on nonprofit organizations.
This report analyzes nonprofit involvement in advocacy and civic engagement. It finds considerable barriers to advocacy activity on the part of nonprofits and limited ability to devote staff time to it. This threatens one of the central functions of this set of organizations.
For the past 37 years, the annual G8 summits have generated a wide breadth of declarations and communiqués binding the leaders to hard commitments across a diverse range of global policy issues. The extent to which the G8 members comply with their annual commitments has, in recent years, become a hotly contested topic, pitting academics, politicians, policy wonks and newsmakers against each other in an effort to understand whether commitments by the G8 do, in fact, matter. Given this era of ongoing domestic political constraints and conflicting global demands, does the G8 have the ability and, indeed, the capacity not only to make, but also to keep the commitments its members collectively generate at their annual summits?
Accountability and transparency are important elements in ensuring that the G20 is delivering on its commitments, but few formal mechanisms exist for holding member countries answerable for their decisions and the subsequent effects.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.