Do Hedging and Trading Derivatives Have the Same Impact on Public European Banks' Value and Share Performance?
In most cases the ultimate goal of a bank is profit maximization. That depends on what derivatives one uses. Thus the objective of this research is to examine the relationship between a bank’s value and characteristics of derivatives it subscribed to. The financials from 2005 to 2010 of 130 European public banks countries are examined. The study is based on two sets of data: the
first one contains the accounting data on balance sheets and the profit and loss accounts from Bankscope from 2005 to 2010, while the second one includes the manually collected data from the notes to the financial statement disclosures. Regression analysis is used to trace the impact of derivative use on bank’s value. Time effects and cross-country differences are controlled for.
Two key research implications are as follows. The return on hedging derivatives is positively associated with the growth in bank’s stock returns, whereas trading derivatives’ notional value negatively impacts both Tobin’s q and ROAA, and positively impacts risk of the bank’s stocks.
Internal rate of return IRR is one of the key criteria for justifying and choosing capital investments with conventional cash flows. However, this criterion is not practically used when the rate of return of investment instruments (short sales, options, futures, swaps) is calculated because these instruments create non-conventional cash flows. The author previously showed that IRR problems were observed when the present value of cash flows changed sign from period to period. This paper offers a criterion to evaluate the rate of return of investment instruments with non-conventional cash flows, i.e. General Rate of Return (GRR).
An innovation in finance, as well as investment in the research and development (R&D) in different financial instruments is a fundament of financial knowledge management. A wide literature has shown that there is a high positive correlation between financial markets (instruments), knowledge (information) and company performance (good investment choices). This chapter analyzes the importance of knowledge management in making financial decisions (the choice of financial instruments) in order to reduce risks in international conditions. According to BIS bank (Bank for International Settlements) data (2018), the most developed financial derivatives markets are analyzed. The novelty of this chapter lies in the fact that companies operate in conditions of international financial risks and that innovations and best practices in this issue provide solutions for such risk reduction. Conclusion is that financial innovations based on the best practice aimed to risk protection contribute to the stability of financial flows. Such instruments represent a cost to companies but also reduce risks.
The article presents a review of events in the financial market in 2007-2008. The author studies the interconnection between macroeconomic policy conducted by the USA monetary authorities since beginning of 1980-s till now, and the risks which have concentrated in the financial system and resulted in the crisis. The author specifies the mechanisms of the crisis deepening and broadening, and gives her own evaluation to them.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.