Estimation of Russian Constant-Price Input-Output Accounts According to NACE/CPA
A methodology has been developed to construct a time series of Russian Input-Output (IO) accounts for 2003 and subsequent years. This was based on the OKVED (All-Russian classifier of activities) and OKPD (All-Russian classifier of Products by Activity) classifications that are harmonized with the NACE rev. 1/CPA. The construction used IO Accounts for 2003 built in the Soviet classifications as the starting point.
An iterative algorithm has been proposed to transform these tables for 2003 into the OKVED/OKPD classifications. In the first step Use table (initial approximation) at purchasers' prices has been transformed using the conversion table bridging the Soviet classifications to the OKVED/OKPD classifications. In the second step the initial approximations of the 5 components of Use table at purchasers’ prices have been developed: the use of domestic goods and services at basic prices, the use of imported goods and services at basic prices; transport margins; trade margins and net taxes on products are developed. In the third step balancing each of the five tables has been taken place to ensure compliance of the row totals with the respective targets of national accounts. In the fourth step the final version of the use table at purchasers' prices has been calculated as the sum of the balanced five tables.
The method has been proposed to construct time series of IO Accounts at current prices based on these classifications for 2004 and subsequent years on the basis of transformed IO accounts for 2003 using the RAS procedure. RAS method is applied in two stages, first to determine the column totals of each of the calculated five tables and then to calculate all other items of these tables. Unlike traditional applications, in this paper RAS method is used to calculate matrices of intermediate consumption and final demand of goods and services simultaneously.
IO Accounts at basic prices account for 2004 and subsequent years have also been derived at previous year prices. For this purpose the deflators have been calculated on the basis of national accounts variables and statistics of international trade in goods and services.
The Russian economy has been booming over the past decade and flexed its muscles in the international political and economic arena. But how strong is the Russian economy really? Is it mainly based on the revenues of gas and oil exports? Or is it the result of major changes in the structure and productivity in the economy since the breakdown of the communist system? To what extent will these changes be mainly transitory, reflecting the shift from a planned economy towards a free market environment, or permanent? In this article we compare the pattern of economic growth in Russia in the past decades with that of other economic regions in the world economy and argue that some features of sustainable growth have appeared in the last decade. The current crisis will be a major test of the resilience of the Russian economy.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.