Land, Votes, and Violence: Political Effects of the Insecure Property Rights over Land in Dagestan
To what extend are Russian state agencies involved in predatory behaviour, and what are the determinants of their activities? Analysing a novel dataset containing 312 cases of illegal corporate raiding (reiderstvo) between 1999 and 2010, this paper identifies a shift both in the regional and sectoral distribution of raiding attacks over time, as well as an increasing participation of state agencies in criminal raiding attacks. Using panel regression analysis to look at the determinants of increasing state involvement, I find that election results for the ruling president and his party, as well as the degree to which elections are manipulated throughout Russia’s regions are significantly and positively correlated with the number of raiding attacks in a given region, while regions with governors that have stronger local ties are characterized by a smaller number of attacks. A potential interpretation of these findings is that the federal centre might tolerate a certain degree of predatory activities by regional elites, as long as these elites are able to deliver a sufficiently high level of electoral support for the centre, with the effect being weaker in regions where the governor is interested in the long-term development of the regional economy.
The Reader includes commented Russian translations of the major normative texts on Islamic and customary law in Arabic which were composed in Dagestan from the 17th through the first third of the 20th centuries. Most of these monuments were never published in Russian. A considerable part of them is kept in manuscripts in state and private collections. These works and documents show a gradual transformation of Muslim legal culture, power and society after the North Caucasus was involved in the political and legal space of tsarist and early Soviet Russia. In addition, the book includes studies on the history of Islamic justice and law in the region introducing readers into the current state of international research in this field. The focus is made on theory and practice of Islamic and customary law, treatiseas on different questions of fiqh, legal deeds and legislation/ The reader addresses first of all to undergraduate students specializing on history, law and culture of Islam in Russia. It can be used as a reference book in university courses related to particularities of Islamic and customary law in Russia as well as to a general history of Islam and Muslim societies in the colonial period in Russia and worldwide.
This study examines intercultural relations in the Republic of Dagestan (RD) in the North Caucasus, Russia. RD is the most multicultural and multilingual republic in the Russian Federation. The research used the hypotheses and measures developed in the MIRIPS project (http://www.victoria.ac.nz/cacr/research/mirips). Our goal was to test three hypotheses: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. We also examined the role of a separation strategy in intercultural relations. The sample included members of the largest ethnic groups of RD: Avars (N = 100), Dargins (N = 116), Russians (N = 101) and members of other ethnic groups, such as Kumyks, Lezgins, Tabasarans, (N = 121). Data processing was carried out using structural equation modeling (SEM) separately for the ethnic groups, and simultaneously for the whole sample. The results showed that perceived security promoted support for multicultural ideology, tolerance, and integration among the whole sample. The contact hypothesis was not supported: number and frequency of friendly intercultural contacts had no significant impact on tolerance and integration in the whole sample. Preference for integration promoted life satisfaction and self-esteem in the whole sample. We also found that the separation strategy was positively associated with life satisfaction among members of ethnic groups in RD.
The article deals with fertility in the Republic of Dagestan, which markedly differs from the Russian average in fertility timing: the mean age of mother at the first childbirth in Dagestan is not rising and remains at a relatively low level. And there are significant differences between the ethnic groups in the republic that from the point of the demographic theory seems quite unexpected against the background of the ongoing modernization changes in the republic. Based on the analysis of the data from the AllRussian population census — 2010 and from the survey conducted by the authors in Dagestan, the article shows that the ethnic differences in the age of mothers at the first childbirth are remaining, even among women with high education level and younger age cohorts. Lack of neutralization of the ethnic differences by the character of childbearing in the educated groups of population is quite a rare phenomenon that needs a special explanation. Its possible social and cultural origins are the subject of discussion.
Based on a comparative linguistic and historical analysis of the famous Avar ballad about the brave bandit Khochbar, who was burned alive by the perfidious khan Khunzakh, the author examines the changing relations between power and violence as well as historical memory of social banditry in premodern Mountain Daghestan. After the establishment of the Russian colonial administration by the mid-19th century traditional male unions of Muslim highlanders became outlaws and gradually disappeared, their military chieftains having turned into criminals. In people’s cultural memory this shift is reflected in the new image of a noble bandit like a Muslim Robin Hood. The paper also includes a new Russian translation of the song of Khochbar and its detailed historical comments.