### Working paper

## The large-period limit for equations of discrete turbulence

Formation of low frequency harmonics on turbulent distribution in the system of waves on the surface of liquid hydrogen has been studied in the frequency range 1-100 Hz (capillary-gravity waves). It is shown that the geometry of the experimental cell has a significant influence on the direct cascade of capillary waves generated by monochromatic force as well as on the direction of the wave energy transfer from the range of pumping towards that of dissipation. Besides a direct turbulent cascade, single half-frequency harmonic generation was observed in a cylindrical cell under high pump power. In a square cell we observed not only a half-frequency harmonic but a number of low frequency harmonics below the driving frequency generated by the nonlinear three-wave interaction. In the case of a rectangular cell we observed formation of incommensurate low frequency harmonics caused by the three-wave interaction of capillary waves and generation of a wave mode of similar to 1Hz in the frequency range of gravity waves which could be attributed to the four-wave interaction.

We report on the experimental observation of energy accumulation near the high frequency boundary of the inertial range in the spectrum of turbulence in a system of capillary waves on the surface of liquid hydrogen driven by a harmonic force. The effect is manifested as a local maximum in the spectrum of pair correlation function of the surface elevation. This phenomenon is dynamical and can be seen only during reconfiguration of the turbulent cascade caused by waves generation of below the driving frequency.

Formation of low frequency harmonics on turbulent distribution in the system of waves on the surface of liquid hydrogen has been studied in the frequency range 1-100 Hz (capillary-gravity waves). It is shown that the geometry of the experimental cell has a significant influence on the direct cascade of capillary waves generated by monochromatic force as well as on the direction of the wave energy transfer from the range of pumping towards that of dissipation. Besides a direct turbulent cascade, single half-frequency harmonic generation was observed in a cylindrical cell under high pump power. In a square cell we observed not only a half-frequency harmonic but a number of low frequency harmonics below the driving frequency generated by the nonlinear three-wave interaction. In the case of a rectangular cell we observed formation of incommensurate low frequency harmonics caused by the three-wave interaction of capillary waves and generation of a wave mode of similar to 1Hz in the frequency range of gravity waves which could be attributed to the four-wave interaction.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.