Nowcasting Russian GDP using forecast combination approach
In an uncertain world, decisions by market participants are based on expectations. Thus, sentiment indicators reflecting expectations are proven at predicting economic variables. However, survey respondents largely perceive the world through media reports. Typically, crude media information, like word-count indices, is used in the prediction of macroeconomic and financial variables. Here, we employ a rich data set provided by Media Tenor International, based on sentiment analysis of opinion-leading media in Germany from 2001 to 2014, transformed into several monthly indices. German industrial production is predicted in a real-time out-of-sample forecasting experiment using more than 17,000 models formed of all possible combinations with a maximum of 3 out of 48 macroeconomic, survey, and media indicators. Media data are indispensable for the prediction of German industrial production both for individual models and as a part of combined forecasts, particularly during the global financial crisis.
The problem of optimal monetary policy is extremely relevant for Russia. Although the monetary authority claims that inflation targeting is the main goal of the monetary policy, empirical finding suggest that the real exchange rate targeting is of major importance (see Vdovichenko / Voronina 2004). Due to the rising flow of petrodollars, the rouble is currently experiencing a significant real appreciation. The fear to harm exports causes the monetary authority to respond by accumulating dollar reserves and increasing the money supply, thus preventing a nominal appreciation. Such policy leads to high inflation which benefits of some groups at the expense of others. That is why the optimal degree of intervention is in the centre of the current political and economic debate.
The article is essentially an analysis of supervision and oversight in the national payment system as the activities of the Bank of Russia. The essence of supervision and oversight in the light of the Draft Federal Law «On the national payment system» and international practice are analyzed. Moreover, for a more detailed consideration of oversight, it is compared with certain measures of banking supervision, such as preventive measures and credit organization curatorship.
Monograph by S. Khasyanova «Upgrading Banking Regulation and Supervision in Russia in the line with International Standards» is devoted to the study of the development of banking regulation and supervision in Russia on the basis of international principles and standards. The process of implementation of international principles and standards of banking regulation in the Russian Federation and the following consequences are analyzed in the context of financial stability. Particular attention is paid to macroeconomic regulation and development of prudential regulations and requirements for banks, taking into account banking sector peculiarities. The regulation of systemic risk, identification of systemically important banks and applied to them a particular regulatory regime were investigated. The Deposit Insurance System and its role in enhancing the stability of banks as well as its directions of improvement are also considered in the study. The book is intended for professionals in the field of finance and banking, teachers and students of universities’ economic and financial departments.
The chapter is devoted to evolution of regulation in Russian financial sector. In the first part, we describe the general evolution of regulation starting from the late 1980s when the country started transition to market economy to current situation. The system of regulation came through two large stages: 1989–2013 was a period of coexistence of several different regulatory bodies, and 2013-nowadays when Bank of Russia started to serve as a mega-regulator and took the responsibility over all financial sector. We examine positive and negative side of this evolution. In the second part, we describe several episodes of self-regulation of ethical behavior in several financial markets (banking, microfinance, and debt collection) and try to explain the factors of their success or failure.
In this paper we analyze official monthly inflation forecast in Russia using ARMA-model. The main purpose of the analysis is to test hypotheses about whether the official inflation forecast is an instrument of monetary policy.
The ability of a central bank to conduct an independent monetary policy is a key condition for switching to a free floating exchange rate regime and for pursuing inflation targeting policies. The objective of our study is to evaluate how the exchange rate policies conducted by the Russian Central Bank (RCB) during different periods have impacted the domestic money market. We estimate the sensitivity of domestic interest rates to their foreign counterparts through uncovered and covered interest rate parities and find significant variations in the coefficient estimates for different phases of exchange rate policies. This dynamics allows us to assess how successful the RCB were in its efforts to create an institutional background enabling a gradual transition to free floating and inflation targeting monetary policies.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.