Leading countries consider regional clusters as an efficient tool of interaction between actors of a region’s innovation system, which allows generating new poles of economic growth. There is a plenty of literature describing positive experience of clusters’ public support. In Russia, this process is still at an early stage. Russia’s strategy of innovative development until 2020 includes a program for supporting pilot innovative regional clusters. The aim is to make these clusters self-sustained.
Emergence and outlook of a cluster’s evolution are largely dependent on a range of basic conditions, such as: the urban environment; available critical mass of specialized companies; internal competition and openness to the outside world. There is always a risk that without government support the cluster will not be able to shift to the desired trajectory.
The paper presents a detailed overview of research devoted to the best practices of implementing state cluster policy. It provides a detailed analysis of the characteristic features of successful clusters, evaluates matching of Russia’s pilot innovative regional clusters to these criteria, as well as quantitative comparison between domestic and foreign clusters, suggests a model for sustainable cluster development.
The empirical base of the study is the development programmes of pilot innovative regional clusters, submitted to Ministry of Economic Development of Russia through 2012 in the framework of a special contest, as well as the results of the survey, commissioned by the JSC "Russian Venture Company" at the end of 2013.
A concise industial history of modern worlg (evolution of term "industry"; technological revolutions and evolution of branches and institutional forms, foremost industrializers and lastcomers, structural changes, macroeconomic policy, glogal expansion of TNC, clusters, distinqushing features of industrial development of the Russian Empire, USSR and Russian federation
The state policy on stimulation of development innovative clusters at regional level is considered. By the analysis of experience of realisation кластерных initiatives in various regions, the basic directions of assistance to their development, public authorities and local government are established. The basic reference points of the state policy aimed at creation clusters are defined. The technique of identification innovative territorial clusters is proved.
The article reveals the concepts and the specific characteristics of the cluster policy, describes its generic problems inherent in the transition economies, including Russia. Authors describe possible directions of cluster policy realization in Russia. It is shown that many vital issues of the cluster policies implementation lie in its organization. Based on the example of the Scandinavian countries, that recognize the importance of the cluster approach, authors describe the organizational aspects of the implemented cluster programs. Authors define three types of cluster policy organizational structure and reveal the central role of the specialized agencies, whose analogues in Russia can be the regional centers of cluster development. Authors propose a typology of cluster policy organizationalstructuresthat differ in the number of involved ministries and specialized agencies, the types of relationship and object of regulation, functions and status of the authorized agencies. This typology is used to categorize the experience of cluster policy implementation in different countries. It is shown that under similar conditions the organization of cluster policy can take many forms and vary with time.
Ces derniers temps, le nombre et la qualité des clusters ont pris une expansion visible en Russie. Avant l’adoption d’une politique de clusters au niveau fédéral, à la fi n de la décennie 2000, seules quelques régions avaient fait part de leur intention de contribuer au développement de ceux qui existaient sur leur territoire et dont peu marchaient vraiment. La situation, en outre, a radicalement changé au cours des dernières années.
портовый менеджмент, показатели деятельности, анализ эффективности, система учета, распределение издержек, методы анализа деятельности портовой системы
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management