The effect of phonological ability on math is modulated by socioeconomic status in elementary school
This paper focuses on the psychological aspects of poverty, in particular, the relationship between poverty and individual psychological characteristics. We analyzed a number of studies that make it possible to formulate hypotheses about the relationship between different types of poverty and components of self-perception, basic individual values of the person and features of economic decision-making. We emphasize the need for empirical research in order to test these hypotheses and identify possible new directions for research within the psychology of poverty.
This paper empirically studies the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) and type of settlement on the knowledge of the Chuvash language in the Chuvash Republic, Russia. In addition to presenting our survey results of 2,848 school students from September, 2012 to October, 2013, this research uses logit regressions to test the effect of social class, family income, parental education, rural origin, ethnicity, parental language proficiency, population size and distance to the capital city (Shupashkar/Cheboksary) on Chuvash language knowledge. In contrast to most of the previous literature, we do not analyze the effect of migration on language; the surveyed children were usually born in Chuvashia, Russia. Our findings suggest that high SES (embodied principally in children’s lack of rural origin), has a negative impact on Chuvash. Children living and studying in bigger towns and cities, and near the capital, are less likely to have a good Chuvash knowledge. These results are robust to different indicators of the key explanatory variables and econometric methods.
In this article we empirically study the impact of socioeconomic status and population size on the use of the Tatar language at home in Tatarstan, Russia. We use two analytical subsamples, the first one includes 709 pupils with Tatar ethnicity, and the second adds pupils reporting two ethnicities, Tatar-Russian. Based on econometric methods, principally logistic regressions, and controlling for the grade in the Russian language class, school characteristics, psychological attributes, health issues, family structure, and gender, we found a negative significant effect on the use of Tatar, that is, children from families with better material conditions, and those who live in bigger cities, are more likely to use Russian. Although Tatar seems to be well protected thanks to local language policies after perestroika, we found some warning signs for the reformulation of public policies for the maintenance and development of minority languages in Russia
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.