The Value of Information in Technology Adoption: Theory and Evidence from Bangladesh
The Informational paradigm of discourse to the XXIst century is replaced by communicative; due to the spread of the Internet, new features and models of communication based on the subject-to-subject concept of hypertext are formed. Tekstogennost’ as a set of anthropogenically-technical factors of generation, transmission, exchange texts of public communication, leading to the formation and operation of new types of vehicles and generators of information in all spheres of life, which have an impact on them, becomes the essential characteristic of socio-economic discourse. The role of the professional communication support (PR, mass media) of all processes becomes more essential. Thus, the textual, philological, humanitarian dimension determines the effectiveness of social development.
Projects and reforms targeting infrastructure services can affect consumer welfare through changes in the price, coverage, or quality of the services provided. The benefits of improved service quality—while significant—are often overlooked because they are difficult to quantify. This article reviews methods of evaluating the welfare implications of changes in the quality of infrastructure services within the broader theoretical perspective of welfare measurement. The study outlines the theoretical assumptions and data requirements involved, illustrating each method with examples that highlight common methodological features and differences. The article also presents the theoretical underpinnings and potential applications of a new approach to analysing the effects of interruptions in the supply of infrastructure services on household welfare.
Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE 14th International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration (IEEE IRI 2013) , 14-16 August 2013, San Francisco, Ca, USA.
We are witnessing now a coming closer together of two pedagogical movements – that of media education (media literacy) and that of information literacy, both of them having previously existed parallel to each other, and without actually crossing each other’s path.
To test a novel social network HIV risk-reduction intervention for MSM in Russia and Hungary, where same-sex behavior is stigmatized and men may best be reached through their social network connections.DESIGN:
A two-arm trial with 18 sociocentric networks of MSM randomized to the social network intervention or standard HIV/STD testing/counseling.SETTING:
St. Petersburg, Russia and Budapest, Hungary.PARTICIPANTS:
Eighteen 'seeds' from community venues invited the participation of their MSM friends who, in turn, invited their own MSM friends into the study, a process that continued outward until eighteen three-ring sociocentric networks (mean size = 35 members, n = 626) were recruited.INTERVENTION:
Empirically identified network leaders were trained and guided to convey HIV prevention advice to other network members.MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES:
Changes in sexual behavior from baseline to 3-month and 12-month follow-up, with composite HIV/STD incidence, measured at 12 months to corroborate behavior changes.RESULTS:
There were significant reductions between baseline, first follow-up, and second follow-up in the intervention versus comparison arm for proportion of men engaging in any unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (P = 0.04); UAI with a nonmain partner (P = 0.04); and UAI with multiple partners (P = 0.002). The mean percentage of unprotected anal intercourse acts significantly declined (P = 0.001), as well as the mean number of UAI acts among men who initially had multiple partners (P = 0.05). Biological HIV/STD incidence was 15% in comparison condition networks and 9% in intervention condition networks.CONCLUSION:
Even where same-sex behavior is stigmatized, it is possible to reach MSM and deliver HIV prevention through their social networks.
The matters of information presentation subject to specific problems of information innovation support of research and development (R&D ) results are discussed.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.