Optimal vaccine allocation during the mumps outbreak in two SIR centers
The regional characteristics of the epidemic process and the incidence rates of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the Arkhangelsk region have been examined in the paper. In the period 2005 -2015 the annual TBE incidence rates per 100 thousand population were from 2,0 to 5,4 times higher as compared to the corresponding averages reported for the whole population of the Russian Federation. The most possible causes of the increased incidence rates of tick-borne viral encephalitis in the Arkhangelsk region and temporal trends in its changes as well as potential risk factors of TBE extension have been stated. The vectors of viral encephalitis in the Arkhangelsk region are represented by two types of ixodic ticks: Ixodes persulcatus (the "taiga" tick) and Ixodes ricinus ("forest" tick), the Ixodes persulcatus constitutes over 99 % of their total number. Spring-summer season is typical for TBE cases occurrence which is associated with higher tick activity in this area. The average tick infection rate for the period was 7.8 %. The cases of TBE are reported to occur mainly in urban citizens; and lethality rate due to TBE reached 4.3%. Since 2010 decrease in the TBE morbidity has being observed in the Arkhangelsk region. Reducing morbidity can be connected to the increase in the proportion of vaccinated persons, which reached 6.3 % of the total population of the Arkhangelsk region. The main indices of the acaricide treatment volume which increased since 2005 nearly 6 times, from 128.2 to 740.0 hectares have been stated. Considering the fact that the area of acaricide treatment in the region increases every year, and the number of persons seeking medical advice concerning tick bites remains high it is necessary to control the effectiveness of acaricide treatment regularly. Core measures to decrease the tick-borne viral encephalitis conducted by the Regional Office of Federal Service for Consumers' Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing as well as ways for further research have been introduced.
The worldwide reduction of vaccination uptake due to the voluntary refusal by some subpopulations constitutes a significant threat to public health. The study aims to provide systematic description of the factors which influence attitudes or behaviors associated with a vaccination rejection. A systematic review was carried out in 2015 using the Web of Science database. The analysis included English-language articles published from 1980 to 2015 containing the results of original empirical research of the phenomenon of refusal of vaccination. Of the 679 records found 30 publications met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that the determination of non-vaccination is extremely variable. All factors refusal of vaccination discovered in the research were divided into four content blocks: 1) demographics and socioeconomic status; 2) cognitive; 3) behavioral and 4) other factors (a) vaccine-specific, b) health and medical conditions, c) social environment, d) informational influence. The active studying the vaccination refusal as a socio-psychological phenomenon last for about 15 years, the majority of studies performed in the United States and Canada. In more than 5 independent studies there were found links of non-vaccination attitudes or behavior to the following factors: the perceived low vaccine efficacy (cognitive factor); the idea of a high probability of serious side effects of vaccination and general vaccines unsafety (cognitive factor); low level of trust to "official" medicine and public entities (cognitive factor); use of complementary and alternative medicine by family members (behavioral factors). Other potentially important factors found in 5 studies were: low perceived risk of vaccine preventable diseases and the perceived potential harm of vaccination to the immune system of the child (cognitive factors). The systematic review revealed a general underestimation of the social and psychological factors in the study of the phenomenon of non-vaccination and an emphasis on cognitive factors.
Immunization is one of the most significant achievements of public health over the last 100 years. Recently, however, people have been increasingly refusing to vaccinate. There are a large number of separate studies on how pervasive this behavior is and what factors influence it, but no systematic review has been undertaken so far that looked at these studies as a whole. To conduct an analysis of studies that examine vaccine refusal and negative attitudes towards vaccination, focusing on the methodological approaches to the study of these problems and evaluation of their quality. A systematic review of English-language studies published between 1980 and 2015, using the Web of Science™ Core Collection database. The final review dealt with 31 papers. The studies in question were mainly conducted in North America and Western Europe. They were published three years after conclusion, on average. We have identified five different approaches to the study of these problems: 1) studies of parents’ attitudes and behavior; 2) analysis of vaccination records; 3) studies of attitudes and behavior among the general population; 4) studies of medical professionals’ attitudes, behavior, and experience; and 5) others. We found that theoretical models were not commonly used at the planning stage, while the studies also lacked a common approach to the operationalization of vaccine refusal, as well as of negative attitudes towards vaccination. Several promising directions have been identified for future studies on vaccine refusal and negative attitudes towards vaccination.
This prototype development explains the challenges encountered during the ISO/IEEE 11073 standard implementation process. The complexity of the standard and the consequent heavy requirements, which have not encouraged software engineers to adopt the standard. The developing complexity evaluation drives us to propose two possible implementation strategies that cover almost all possible use cases and eases handling the standard by non-expert users. The first one is focused on medical devices (MD) and proposes a low-memory and low-processor usage technique. It is based on message patterns that allow simple functions to generate ISO/IEEE 11073 messages and to process them easily. MD act as X73 agent. Second one is focused on more powerful device X73 manager, which do not have the MDs' memory and processor usage constraints. The protocol between Agent and Manager is point-to-point and we can distribute the functionality between devices.
Developed both implementation X73 Agent and Manager will cut developing time for applications based on ISO/EEE 11073.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine