This paper explores the history of migration studies in the USA and in Europe, starting from Chicago school (1910 – 1920-s) and coming to current trends in this scientific field. I cover historical development of assimilation theory, the framework of the “Melting Pot”, then get to 1960-s and the rise of its criticism due to ethnocentric approach. I also show later developments of this concept into revised assimilation theory (Verba, Nee, Moravska), and into segmented assimilation concept (Portes, Rumbaut, Zhou, Waters). I see multiculturalism as a global trend that changed the way of thinking about ethnicity on the both continents and brought to life new theories, like transnationalism in European sociology (Glick Schiller, Foner, Vertovec). I also point at some contradictions of European and American approaches in migration theory in certain aspects, such as the effect of religiosity on integration success (Foner and Alba, Van Tubergen). Russian studies in this field that became numerous in the recent years are disregarded intentionally as they get covered in many other works, while the most recent trends of the international migration theory are not profoundly utilized in Russian sociology yet. Another reason is that they still lack broader theoretical perspective and stay more empirical.
The author researches the key problems of the formation of the Russian-speaking Diaspora in a separate poly-ethnic region. The major trends of the adaptation of the Russian-speaking Diaspora in Finland have been studied as well.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.