A Collateral Tax Sanction: When Does it Mimic a Welfare-Improving Tag?
This paper discusses an important component of the radio frequency identification (RFID) system, namely, the RFID-tag and the bending effect on its electrodynamic parameters. The RFID tag was modeled and the following parameters were calculated: Scattering Coefficients (parameter S11), Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), vertical and horizontal radiation patterns and total. The results of the work will allow optimizing the design of the RFID-tag in such a way as to achieve optimal quantitative indicators of electrodynamic parameters.
The systems genetic approach has been used for studying students` mental development. The ability development is considered in terms of intellectual operations acquistion. An aim of the study is to identify the components of the abilities which are consciously acquired by student in the learning process. The study desing is included the work to teach students the intellectual operations and use them at work with training materials, and the psychological testing of control and experimental student groups before and after training test to diagnose the level of intellectual development. The study was conducted with the teachers and students of primary and secondary school.
The importance of intellectual operations within the ability and intelligence structure is discussed in the article. The notion of ‘intellectual operations’ is overviewed by comparison of its meaning in works of different researchers. The author proposes the ability understanding on three levels: the level of individual, the activity subject level and the level of personality. It is reasoned that the intellectual operations and morality are the key factors that ‘transfer’ the ability development from one level to another. Consequently, it is stated that the psychic functions development is at the same time as a process of intelligence integration. The systematization of intellectual operations is suggested.
The article represents the materials devoted to the issue of ability development in comprehensive school. The results of subject qualities investigation as determinants of students’ effective intellectual development in educational process are referred to in the article. The author propose the approach to interpretation of such psychological categories as ‘subject’ and ‘subject’s qualities’ (subjectness). In the theoretical propositions review the approaches to subjectness particular model development that identify efficacy of various activities are described. The model of subjectness revealed at the students’ abilities development and results of its (model) experimental examination are discussed in the present article. The work might be interesting both in theoretical and in a particular applied aspects. Its results are of high actuality for the pedagogical systems oriented to the most effective students’ development.
The analysis of theoretical work on the psychology of activity by leading Russian psychologists has shown that the principle of the activity approach is deeply and comprehensively developed in Russian psychology and has reasonably acquired the status of a paradigm. Conceptual models of the activity approach can be successfully applied while setting exploratory programs and developing specific research designs. It can be reasonably argued that the activity approach has not only had a rich past, but it also has a successful present and future. This study reports on the general structure of the activity psychological functional system (APFS) that is close to the general structure of the physiological functional system suggested by P. K. Anokhin. However, the APFS in its components and the relationships between them is filled with a new content that is primarily determined by the human mind. The issue of the ability’s place in an activity structure is addressed in this paper. Understanding activity from the standpoint of system genesis reveals the essence of human development processes and provides for understanding of the relationship between activity and development; it shows the place of abilities in the implementation of activities and enables the understanding of the development mechanism in abilities and activities. It is shown that abilities are mechanisms of activity realization, and that activity may be considered from the position of a system of abilities employed to accomplish it that undergoes permanent changes in regard to the composition and the extent of the constituents’ interaction.