This paper discusses an important component of the radio frequency identification (RFID) system, namely, the RFID-tag and the bending effect on its electrodynamic parameters. The RFID tag was modeled and the following parameters were calculated: Scattering Coefficients (parameter S11), Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), vertical and horizontal radiation patterns and total. The results of the work will allow optimizing the design of the RFID-tag in such a way as to achieve optimal quantitative indicators of electrodynamic parameters.
The systems genetic approach has been used for studying students` mental development. The ability development is considered in terms of intellectual operations acquistion. An aim of the study is to identify the components of the abilities which are consciously acquired by student in the learning process. The study desing is included the work to teach students the intellectual operations and use them at work with training materials, and the psychological testing of control and experimental student groups before and after training test to diagnose the level of intellectual development. The study was conducted with the teachers and students of primary and secondary school.
The importance of intellectual operations within the ability and intelligence structure is discussed in the article. The notion of ‘intellectual operations’ is overviewed by comparison of its meaning in works of different researchers. The author proposes the ability understanding on three levels: the level of individual, the activity subject level and the level of personality. It is reasoned that the intellectual operations and morality are the key factors that ‘transfer’ the ability development from one level to another. Consequently, it is stated that the psychic functions development is at the same time as a process of intelligence integration. The systematization of intellectual operations is suggested.
The article represents the materials devoted to the issue of ability development in comprehensive school. The results of subject qualities investigation as determinants of students’ effective intellectual development in educational process are referred to in the article. The author propose the approach to interpretation of such psychological categories as ‘subject’ and ‘subject’s qualities’ (subjectness). In the theoretical propositions review the approaches to subjectness particular model development that identify efficacy of various activities are described. The model of subjectness revealed at the students’ abilities development and results of its (model) experimental examination are discussed in the present article. The work might be interesting both in theoretical and in a particular applied aspects. Its results are of high actuality for the pedagogical systems oriented to the most effective students’ development.
The suspension of a driver’s license or the revocation of a passport or a professional license are used by the tax authorities as sanctions for failure to comply with tax obligations and are referred to as collateral tax sanctions. In this paper, I propose a new rationale for why it may be beneficial to use collateral tax sanctions for the purpose of tax enforcement. By affecting consumption and providing enforcement targeted to a group, collateral tax sanctions may allow the government to impose punishment correlated with an individual’s earning potential. Such punishment also makes the effective tax rates correlated with an individuals’ earning potential and therefore leads to a more effective redistribution of income. I show that the use of collateral tax sanctions could increase the CES social welfare function when the skill distribution of the targeted group first-order stochastically dominates the skill distribution of the other group and the social welfare function is sufficiently concave.