The Meaning of Digitalization for Research Skills: Challenges for STI Policy
Foresight has gained much attention as a tool for developing and informing science, technology and innovation policy and company strategies. It is frequently used for detecting not only potential development paths of technologies but also possible economic and societal changes; and for identifying challenges that nations, societies and companies might face in the future. Raising awareness within the respective communities of trends and challenges is critically important—and the biggest challenge is how we can develop measures to meet these anticipated challenges. Paradoxically, perhaps, it may be more helpful for creating and implementing successful measures if these are elaborated by thinking about grasping opportunities, rather than framing them in terms of threats that have to be responded to. Accordingly there is a need to change the mindsets in science, technology and innovation policy making—and to engender solution and opportunity orientation among scientists and engineers.
Governmental support in the formation of economic and intellectual potential of Kuzbass contributes to more comfortable conditions for development of business and improvement of life quality of the population. Strategic branding tools are an effective mechanism which allows building up long-term and trusting relationship with the local people and introducing certain values. The effect of external shocks including the COVID-19 pandemics on the functioning of social and economic spheres also reveal the necessity of their structural transformation and the need for raising digitalization level. The authors of the article suggest a number of strategic initiatives aimed at improving the business reputation of Kuzbass. Kuzbass Trading House can become a centre for promoting Russian hi-tech companies abroad, presenting investment projects. It also can act as an integrator of international engineering projects and a driver for technology transfer. As digitalization tends to spread wider and wider the authors suggest creating an electronic platform «KuzbassTrade» to improve the performance of Kuzbass Trading Centre and build the financial stability of the region. The platform will function as a virtual presentation of products, services and technologies of local representatives of corporate and scientific sectors. State institution «Agency for Investments Attraction and Protection» and leading higher educational institutions and research organizations of Kuzbass should strategically take direct part in creating a unified chain for determining innovative technologies to be implemented (including patent landscape and market niche analysis) and form investment package offers for building new manufactures and consortiums.
The article presents the guidelines of the competency modeling methodology invariant to subject domain, type of activities and psycho-pedagogical platform. The core of this methodology is systematics of the expandable metamodels adaptable to application conditions by profiling mechanism. The methodology is aimed at creating conditions for interoperability of systems and services that make up a digital education, dealing with competency description due to possibility of flexible selection of such interaction level, good information structuring and formalization, selection of competency description units repeatedly used in various contexts, as well as ontological approach. One more purpose of the methodology is preparation of grounds for realization of smart features of digital education technologies: adaptation, inferring, self-learning, anticipation.
Science, technology and innovation (STI) involves numerous policy fields which are championed by different government ministries or agencies. A consistent and coherent anticipatory policy mix is understood to be one that ensures a timely development and implementation of various forward-looking policy instruments. Such timely implementation is crucial for the eventual impact of the policy measures. This also requires that foresight for STI policies looks beyond the potential development paths and challenges but includes the time dimension and the outline of necessary policy responses including a relevant implementation framework. In addition the institutions which are part of the National Innovation Systems (NIS) should to be considered thoroughly for a well-balanced and comprehensive policy mix. Not only national but also regional and local actors need to be involved—and they need to be involved not only in the implementation of policy but at much earlier stages in the foresight and subsequent design procedures of the policy mix. One practical approach for convincing and engaging NIS actors at different levels is to stress opportunities which offer advantages to each of them, instead of just focusing on challenges and problems.
Contemporary discussion on the concept of "civilization" raises a number of questions for researchers: what is civilization? Does it make sense to talk about "civilizations" in the plural? What is the relationship between "civilization" and contemporaneity? The relevance of the issues can be confirmed by indicating the appeal to them not only by scientists, but also by politicians and common people. The cultural complexity of the contemporary world leads to the fact that the concepts are used more often, but the clarity of their meanings is largely lost. The article proposes to return to the methodological issue of definition of concepts in order to clarify how contemporaneity functions. To achieve this goal, it is proposed to consider the concept of "civilization" and "civilizations", first, in the historical context, and, secondly, to relate them to one of the most important features of contemporaneity – "late globalization". The author assumes that the undertaken consideration is able not only to clarify the use of concepts, but also to deepen our understanding of contemporaneity, as well as to get closer to the productive meaning of the discussion on "civilizational projects" which is relevant in the Russian context.
The IEEE Russia North West Section, IEEE Russia Section and Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI” are pleased to present the Proceedings of the 2021 IEEE Communication Strategies in Digital Society Seminar (2021 ComSDS) held in St. Petersburg, Russia on April, 14, 2021. This Seminar is proudly hosted by Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI”. The Organising Committee believes and trusts that we have been true to the spirit of collegiality that members of IEEE value whilst also maintaining a high standard as we reviewed papers, provided feedback and now present a strong body of published work in this collection of proceedings. The theme for this seminar was chosen as a mean of bringing together the orientations of Digital Society research and teaching providing a basis for discussion of issues arising across the community in relation to humanitarian aspects and electronic engineering. The aim in these proceedings has been to present high quality work in an accessible medium, for use in the teaching and further research of all people associated with Digital Society studies. To achieve this aim, all abstracts were blind reviewed, and full papers submitted for publication in this journal of proceedings were subjected to a rigorous reviewing process.
This paper reviews the most central analytical and methodological issues that arise in developing national STI strategies. First, an outline of the relationship between national innovation systems and the strategic dimension is presented. The paper shows that science, technology and innovation strategy are often used in different forms and that there is no common understanding yet of the actual meaning and coverage of these strategies. The paper develops the terminology from a discussion of different approaches towards company innovation processes analyzing their evolution in different socioeconomic environments and the role and impact of science, technology and innovation policy on company innovation processes. Based on this conceptual understanding the paper defines national science, technology, innovation, and STI strategy and explains the basic terminology. From these definitions, the strategic dimension including the impact on the stakeholders is discussed. It is shown that a major success factor for STI strategy development is the involvement of stakeholders to vary and extend their use of their portfolio of instruments. Moreover it becomes evident that stakeholders follow their own interests which aren’t necessarily in the interest of the national STI strategies. The analysis shows advantages and disadvantages as well as potentials and limitations of different approaches to develop STI strategies in their ability to describe the reality of innovation processes and to allow conclusions about the relationship between innovation policy and the innovation processes implemented by companies. It is shown that knowledge of these limitations is an important factor to consider in designing consistent and coherent national STI policy which aims at supporting innovation eventually. Finally the paper concludes that the STI policy mix concept needs a more systemic development approach which is integrated in the national STI strategy development and implementation.
The book gives practical guidance for policy makers, analysts and researchers on how to make the most of the potential of Foresight studies. Based on the concept of evidence-based policy-making, Foresight studies are common practice in many countries and are commonly understood as a supportive tool in designing future-oriented strategies. The book outlines approaches and experiences of integrating such Foresight studies in the making and implementation of science, technology and innovation (STI) policies at different national levels. It delivers insights into practical approaches of developing STI policy measures oriented towards future societal and technological challenges based on evidence drawn from comparable policy measures worldwide. Authors from leading academic institutions, international organizations and national governments provide a sound theoretical foundation and framework as well as checklists and guidelines for leveraging the potential impact of STI policies.