Socio-Economic Predictors of Student Mobility
This paper analyses the determinants of national student mobility under the unified system of admission in Russia and evaluates the barriers which still limit educational mobility. It is argued that even with the Unified State Examination (USE) and the decreased transaction costs of applying to universities, student interregional national mobility is directed towards more developed regional educational markets and richer regions, but is still limited due to the financial constraints in the absence of the additional student support. Russia is an interesting case, because it consists of regions with highly variable socio-economic development and it represents local higher education markets with different levels of competition between universities, which may influence the decision to move. USE was intended to mitigate against these differences, and for political reasons under USE such differences are not considered the main barriers of access to higher education. However, this study takes into account the importance of the institutional characteristics of regions in student mobility.
This paper explores factors responsible for strength of various forms of academic ties between countries. It begins with examining several theoretical models of international academic collaboration: “the republic of letters”, “academic (neo)colonialism”, “the classical world-system”, and “the world-society”. Propositions about factors affecting intensity of ties between countries and configuration of their overall network are then derived from each of the models. These propositions are then tested against empirical data on two kinds of academic ties: volumes of international student flows between pairs of countries (UNESCO statistics) and number of co-authored papers (Web of Science database). Negative binomial regression is used to estimate influence of various independent variables (funding of science, distance, historical experience of dependency) about the significance of which the models make different predictions. We discover that expectations associated with “the classical world-system” fit the data best, with “academic neo-colonialist” factors also important in the case of international student flows. To account for possible differences between disciplines and to capture the directions of evolution of the system, we then explore changes in international collaboration network in two fields: geoscience and economics during a 30-year interval (1980-2010).
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.