The Role of Innovation and Globalization Strategies in Post-Crisis Recovery
This article is dedicated to the analysis of effectiveness of special economic zones (SEZ), a rather new, but promising phenomenon in Russian Federation economy. It includes general analysis of SEZ, its reaction to the world financial crisis, analysis of innovation implementation SEZ (II SEZ), and, in particular, its IT-potential. At the end, the cases related to innovative products realized in these zones are described and some economic and financial indicators suitable to describe the dynamics of development of these agglomerations of IT enterprises are given.
The process of globalization undoubtedly contributes to the changes and reduction of nomenclature and scope of state sovereign powers. At the same time this is a bilateral process: On the one side, the factors are strengthening that fairly undermine the countries` sovereignty, on the other – most states voluntarily limit the scope of their sovereignty including the right to use the capital punishment, nomenclature and size of taxation, the size of emission and borrowings etc. We believe that among the range of factors influencing the process of change of national sovereignty (including the technological and economical changes and the necessity to solve jointly a great number of issues), the factor of voluntary reducing of scope of sovereign powers to obtain an additional prestige and benefit appears to be of the utmost importance. At the same time the limiting of sovereignty inevitably leads to great changes in the policy patterns of states as well as of common people masses. So the problems of changes of functions and role of the modern state, in our view, must be among those of currant importance.
The article considers the preliminary results of the research comparing self assessment and real choices behavior strategies in difficult and conflict situations.
Analysis of innovative activity of businesses, particularly those in the transport sphere, in the Russian Federation is provided, based on the OECD data. Company size, level of monopoly power and industryspecific characteristics were used as factors to determine innovative activity. All factors point at low level of R&D spending by Russian businesses, including those in the transport industry. Natural transport monopolies are significantly behind the world's largest companies in R&D. Lack of innovative management system in businesses is the chief barrier to innovative activity.
After the beginning of the First World War the Polish presence in Russia increased substantially: numerous refugees and prisoners of war joined the earlier established Polonia. The complex process of national self-determination of the Poles was refl ected in the memoirs of Roman Dyboski (1883-1945) – a literary scholar, professor of Jagiellonian University, offi cer of the Austro-Hungarian army. During seven years spent in Russia he visited its various parts, talked to his compatriots, who represented all regions of partitioned Poland, social layers, professions, generations and political groups.
This paper represents an initial report on findings for a study aimed at analyzing several key aspects of middle class development in the Russian regions (subjects of Federation - oblasts, krays, autonomous republics), namely: Federal and regional government programs to stimulate the growth of the middle class (content, tools of implementation, effectiveness); Behavioral strategies and economic behavior (consumption patterns propensity to save, investment) of different sections of Russian middle class; Middle class value orientation and political preferences (including preferences for democracy).
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.