S&T Priority Setting. International Practices and the Case of Russia
The article contains the results of the cognitive mapping procedure applied to a series of interviews with the reviewers of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. The procedure can be qualified as a qualitative research method, which allows to produce a graphic representation of the cognitive content of the respondents’ speech. The interviews touched upon the criteria and methods used by the reviewers in evaluating research proposals, as well as the value basis of the Russian scientific community. Cognitive mapping was applied to 15 interviews, which allowed to conclude that the examined group possessed coincident beliefs in regard to the criteria used in the review of proposals, to the separation between basic science and development, and to the ways to improve the current state of science in Russia.
Recent research of entrepreneurial activity is undoubtedly among the most dynamically developing areas of socio-economic studies and this is well maintained by the number of published papers, researchers attending panel discussions on entrepreneurial activity, and the growing lists of international peer review journals and conferences. However, along with the entrepreneurship legitimization problems, so far, prospects for development of entrepreneurial activity research remain uncertain.
Changes in methods and structure of this research mostly relate to the fact that Russia is undergoing a large-scale development of statistical methodologies to ensure consistency of the country’s statistics with international standards, and those of OECD as such, improve National Accounts System along with demographic data and National Healthcare statistics, design methodology for basic tables “costs-output”, and for statistical surveys of workforce, quality of life and households. In order to align with the business-logic and obtain timely and reliable statistical data on entrepreneurship, we find the conducted work critically important to meet current challenging issues. From this perspective, the research of anatomy of entrepreneurial activity can become a key element of the economic development evaluation and address the challenges of the modern society.
Keywords: statistics, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial activity, economy, challenges.
JEL Classification: M21; O1
This paper addresses the issue of priority setting for research programming in a multi-layered and multilateral context, taking into account the interests of diverse stakeholder groups. It proposes a framework for reducing complexity in a context where societal challenges are multifaceted and largely interconnected, decisions on research programming are highly fragmented and stakeholders are extremely diverse. The framework includes methodological recommendations for thematic priority setting through the application of Future-oriented Technology Analysis (FTA). Also the importance of achieving clear policy impacts (see Johnston and Cagnin, 2011) is addressed by including principles for optimising this impact. We use the case of an ERA-NET project supported under the EU’s FP7 programme, the ERA.Net RUS, which aims at coordinating R&D and innovation policies and support programmes between EU Member States, countries associated to the 7th Framework Programme (FP7) and Russia. A combination of foresight methodologies such as expert workshops, a Delphi survey, roadmapping elements, and prioritisation techniques were applied to select relevant topics for a research call. The paper highlights how foresight embedded in a multilateral programme cooperation project can support priority setting and how the foresight design can be adapted according to a set of coordination dimensions and design principles. Furthermore lessons will be drawn in order to achieve direct impacts, not only on the programming of calls for research projects addressing grand societal challenges (e.g. climate change, major diseases, demography and migration, etc.) between a wide range of countries and regions belonging to different parts of the world, but also on the EU level policy agenda and on the long-term strategic collaboration between world regions. Strategies for communicating foresight results to relevant policy makers at EU and national levels (e.g. in Russia) and for achieving impact herewith are also outlined.
We reviewed the output of research and innovation cooperation between Russia and the US, including publications and patents, in the four prospective areas of energy efficiency and renewable energy during 2007-2011. Joint US-Russia research groups appear to focus primarily on hydrogen energy (fuel cells), followed by solar photovoltaics. The upcoming areas of smart grid and biofuels were left out entirely both from research and innovation collaboration. Russian patents in green energy technologies registered in the US are very low in comparison to those from Japan, Korea, and China.
This is the second volume in a series of five books bringing together the results of intensive research on the national systems of innovation (NSI) in the BRICS countries – Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. This book analyses the co-evolution of inequality and NSI across the BRICS economies. Inequality and Development Challenges argues that inequalities (assets, access to basic services, infrastructure, knowledge, race, gender, ethnicity, and geographic location) that go beyond the aspects of income, must be factored into development strategies since the benefits of innovation are not distributed equally. It combines original and detailed data, making this book an invaluable resource for researchers and scholars in economics, development studies and political science, as well as policymakers and development practitioners interested in the BRICS countries.
Research evaluation recently became a widely disseminated exercise aimed in the end of the day at improving the cost efficiency of public funding of national R&D sectors. In November 2013, the Government of the Russian Federation initiated a national evaluation exercise of public research institutions (PRIs) to provide information basis for development of S&T policies aimed at increasing effectiveness and strengthening the role of R&D performing institutions in economic and social development. The aim of this paper is that of providing an approach for multidimensional assessment of R&D performance based on quantitative data derived from the national evaluation exercise, specifically looking at its applicability and limitations for further analysis and preliminary differentiation of PRIs as well as for use in policymaking.
Developed countries of the 20th Century remain a strong influence worldwide and are being joined by new comers. This, is an opportunity for researchers, scholars, and businessmen to tackle new problems in a variety of technology fields.
The IAMOT 2013 conference is about Science, Technology and Innovation in the Emerging Markets Economy and it is intended to address these problems, discuss its various challenges and experiences as well as point to some possible solutions.
Emerging markets are playing an important role in the global economic system. For investors, these countries have been offering excellent returns, what also means increasing investments in R&D. Moreover, Science, Technology and Innovation have definitely been incorporated in their policy agendas and business strategies. From traditional commodity sectors to new fast-growing high-tech industries, challenges claim for new competitive endeavors. Innovation through new technology, new organizational issues, and new products are the shortest way to generate wealth and development.
Innovation is crucial for competitiveness, both in the national economy and in the firm level. In emerging economies, innovation is an important driver for economic transformation and for accelerating the process of catching up with the global technology frontier.
This illuminating book combines theory and practice to analyze the experiences and impacts of foresight activities in various European countries. It includes case studies with a focus on different societal issues including national development, science and technology, and sustainable development.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.