Молодые и пожилые работники на российском рынке труда: субституты или нет?
The second volume of the series "Demography. Sociology. Economics" is the result of work of the Centre of Social Demography and Economic Sociology of the Institute for Socio-Political Research with scientists from the Far East. The book consists of three sections. The first section deals with the general features of demographic processes and demographic policy in the Far East. The second section of the tendencies of migration processes and approaches to migration management. The third section presents articles on the problems of labor market and employment in the regions of the Far East. The book is recommended for students, postgraduate students, teachers, scientists and experts in the field of demography, migration and of the labor market, as well as all those interested in the Russian Far East.
The article deals with basic specific institutional features of professional training in coordinated and liberal economies. The author thinks that the specifics of labor market institutes have become one of the basic factors that shape models of professional training. One of the principle directions of evaluation of these models is checking whether they are up to challenges of the modern economy. The mechanisms of providing of education services in various countries is primarily determined by the choice of funding sources, the ratio between general and specialized knowledge, and specifics of the knowledge certification systems.
In article the concept of training of specialists in the field of management of human resources of master level is considered. Relevance and demand of such program locates. Features of the present stage of preparation of such experts are analyzed proceeding their requirements of the international labor market.
Russland ist eine alternde Gesellschaft. Mit der späten Lebensphase beschäftigte sich primär die Medizin. Das Bild vom Alter war negativ. Erst seit den 1990er Jahren kommt das Bild in Bewegung. Das ist ein Verdienst der sozialpsychologisch orientierten Gerontologie. Der sozioökonomische Umbruch verschärfte die sozialen Probleme, öffnete aber auch neue Wege zu deren Bewältigung. Heute gibt es in Russland soziale Dienste, deren Qualität aber an mangelhaften gesetzlichen Grundlagen, lückenhafter Ausbildung des Personals und dem Fehlen zivilgesellschaftlicher Institutionen krankt.
Economic crisis started in 2008 forced companies in Russia to move from growth and expansion to reduction and restructuring. The article presents the main changes at top managers’ labor market from the beginning of crisis in Russia. The original data on top managers’ mobility in Russia from late 1999 till 2009 was used. The main result of the research is that there were no big changes in Russian top managers’ labor market during the crisis years (2008–2009). The most significant change was the increase of firm’s demand for specific human capital of top managers and the decrease of demand for general human capital.
The aging of Russian population leads to inefficiency of Pay-As-You-Go system, where the benefits come solely from government taxation of current workers' wages, and seems to be one of the problems of Russian Pension System. This is the overview of Russian demographic settings compared to other countries from US CIA ranking. Long-run instruments of influencing demography in Russia are stated below.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.