### Working paper

## Generalized Weyl modules, alcove paths and Macdonald polynomials

This is a survey of the author's and his collaboratots' recent works on the quasiflags' moduli spaces introduced by Gerard Laumon some 25 years ago. These spaces are used in the study of geometric Eisenstein series, quantum cohomology and K-theory of the flag varieties, Weyl modules, Nekrasov partition function of N=2 supersymmetric gauge quantum field theory.

Let G be an almost simple simply connected complex Lie group, and let G/U be its base affine space. In this paper we formulate a conjecture which provides a new geometric interpretation of the Macdonald polynomials associated to G via perverse coherent sheaves on the scheme of formal arcs in the affinizationof G/U. We prove our conjecture for G=SL(N) using the so called Laumon resolution of the space of quasimaps. In the course of the proof we also give a K-theoretic version of the main result of Negut.

Marc Haiman has reduced Macdonald Positivity Conjecture to a statement about geometry of the Hilbert scheme of points on the plane, and formulated a generalization of the conjecture where the symmetric group is replaced by the wreath product of S_n and Z/rZ. He has proven the original conjecture by establishing the geometric statement about the Hilbert scheme, as a byproduct he obtained a derived equivalence between coherent sheaves on the Hilbert scheme and coherent sheaves on the orbifold quotient of A^{2n} by the symmetric group S_n. A short proof of a similar derived equivalence for any symplectic quotient singularity has been obtained by the first author and Kaledin via quantization in positive characteristic. In the present note we prove various properties of these derived equivalences and then deduce generalized Macdonald positivity for wreath products.

Let G be an almost simple simply connected complex Lie group, and let G/U− be its base affine space. In this paper we formulate a conjecture, which provides a new geometric interpretation of the Macdonald polynomials associated to G via perverse coherent sheaves on the scheme of formal arcs in the affinization of G/U−. We prove our conjecture for G = SL(N) using the so called Laumon resolution of the space of quasi-maps (using this resolution one can reformulate the statement so that only “usual” (not perverse) coherent sheaves are used). In the course of the proof we also give a K-theoretic version of the main result of Negut (2009).

A bstract We continue our study of the AGT correspondence between instanton counting on ${{{{{\ mathbb {C}}^ 2}}}\ left/{{{{\ mathbb {Z}} _p}}}\ right.} $ and Conformal field theories with the symmetry algebra $\ mathcal {A}\ left ({r, p}\ right) $. In the cases r= 1, p= 2 and r= 2, p= 2 this algebra specialized to: $\ mathcal {A}\ left ({1, 2}\ right)=\ mathcal {H}\ oplus\ widehat {\ mathfrak {sl}}{(2) _1} $ and $\ mathcal {A}\ left ({2, 2}\ right)=\ mathcal {H}\ oplus\ widehat {\ mathfrak {sl}}{(2) _2}\ oplus\ mathrm {NSR} $.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.