Challenges of urbanization require new, more flexible approaches to design of public transportation systems. Demand Responsive Transport systems (DRT) that provide a share transportation services with flexible routes and focus on optimizing of economic and environmental value are becoming an important part of public transportation. In this paper we propose a new approach to design of DRT models which considers DRT as a multi-agent system (MAS) where various autonomous agents represent interests of system’s stakeholders. The distributed nature of the MAS facilitates design of scalable implementations in modern cloud environments. We also propose a planning algorithm based on combinatorial auctions (CA) that allows to express commodity of multiple transportation scenarios by evident means of the bids. Using the mechanism of CA we may fully take into account the presence of complementariness and substitutability among the items that differ across bidders. Further, we describe design principles of our proposed software with a prototype implementation. We believe that our approach to multi-agent modeling is general enough to provide the flexibility necessary for adoption of DRT-services modeling into real-world scenarios. The results of modeling have been compared against several cases of a local bus provider and validated in a set of computational experiments.
In this paper, we present a Big Data analysis paradigm related to smart cities using cloud computing infrastructures. The proposed architecture follows the MapReduce parallel model implemented using the Hadoop framework. We analyse two case studies: a quality-of-service assessment of public transportation system using historical bus location data, and a passenger-mobility estimation using ticket sales data from smartcards. Both case studies use real data from the transportation system of Montevideo, Uruguay. The experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed model allows processing large volumes of data efficiently.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.