Does Milk Matter? Genetic Adaptation to Environment: The Effect of Lactase Persistence on Cultural Change
Considering diet as often a product of adaptation to geographic environment, this paper suggests that not only amount of food (food abundance) is important, but what kind of foods people eat may also affect social change. One of the reasons for variation in diet is food intolerances as a result of adaptation to the environment. This paper investigates one case – lactase persistence. This trait is associated with different genotypes of LCT gene. Lactase persistence is mostly spread among northern Europeans, and is also found among some African and Asian nomadic populations. Such unique trait is usually explained in the gene-culture coevolution framework: selective pressure for it had to be followed by expansion of dairying and herding. Empirical analysis based on 78 populations reveals strong and positive association between share of lactase persistent population and distribution of emancipative values. Two causal mechanisms are suggested: a) demographic trends (lower fertility and lower child mortality in lactose tolerant societies) and b) specific type of agriculture based on integration of crop growing and cattle husbandry (higher urban population rate in lactose tolerant societies).
, Общественные науки и современность 2012 № 5 С. 25-40
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, ...
Added: May 12, 2012
Clashing Values: Supranational Identities, Geopolitical Rivalry and Europe’s Growing Cultural Divide
, , Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 2020 P. 1-23
Soon after the collapse of Soviet-type communism in Central and Eastern Europe, a new geopolitical division began to reshape the continent. Our study demonstrates that this newly emerging geopolitical divide has been underpinned by a corresponding cultural divergence, of which “emancipative values” are the most powerful marker. Using the European Values Study/World Values Survey 1990 ...
Added: September 21, 2020
, European Journal of Political Research 2019 Vol. 58 No. 2 P. 388-411
The European Union (EU) is considered to be a unique economic and political union that integrates most European countries. This article focuses on the cultural aspect of European integration, which has been increasingly debated over the course of deepening and widening integration and in the context of the legitimation crisis of the EU. Among the ...
Added: September 23, 2020
, The choice of interpretation as a problem of social epistemology / Basic Research Programme. Series HUM "Humanities". 2013. No. 19/HUM/2013.
Social epistemology is a set of attempts to assign a philosophical meaning to sociological studies of cognitive processes within their social context. These attempts are being made through competition of philosophical interpretations. The choice of interpretation is governed by the desire to bring value orientations of science in line with the challenges from a changing ...
Added: April 27, 2013
, , Values of Russians: the Dynamics and Relations towards Economic Attitudes / Высшая школа экономики. Series SOC "Sociology". 2012. No. 03/SOC/2012.
This study has reviewed theoretical and empirical studies of values and behavior. The results of the research of the dynamics of basic personal values of Russians from the Central Federal district from 1999 until 2010 and the relations of basic personal values to economic attitudes are presented. Dynamics of values are presented on the basis ...
Added: August 28, 2012
Мечты россиян "об обществе" и "о себе": можно ли говорить об особом российском цивилизационном проекте?
, Общественные науки и современность 2015 № 1 С. 52-63
The artice fixed specificity "Russian Dream" and same of its key elements, its connections with the basic ideas of Russian national prodject ...
Added: July 16, 2015
, , Values and Attitudes towards Innovation among Canadian, Chinese and Russian Students / Высшая школа экономики. Series SOC "Sociology". 2012. No. 04/SOC/2012.
This study investigated relations of basic personal values to attitudes towards innovation among students in Russia, Canada, and Сhina. Participants completed a questionnaire that included the SVS measure of values (Schwartz, 1992) and a new measure of attitudes towards innovation (Lebedeva, Tatarko, 2009). There are significant cultural and gender-related differences in value priorities and innovative ...
Added: August 28, 2012
, , Islamic Quarterly 2019 Vol. 63 No. 3 P. 427-452
In the paper Islamism is described as a multi-faceted, multi-dimensional, changing and inconsistent phenomenon. Islamism possesses many levels and manifestations. It is impossible to comprehend modern Muslim (and all the more Arab) societies without an account of the impact of Islam as simultaneously an ideology, cultural environment, modus agenda and mode of life. It would ...
Added: December 3, 2020
, Регионология 2016 № 4 (97) С. 140-159
В статье проанализированы миграционные процессы на Севере России в постсоветский период. Особое внимание уделено периоду с начала 2000-х гг. по настоящее время. Проведена типологизация северных территорий по миграционным показателям. ...
Added: September 28, 2016
, , The Lancet Public Health 2017 Vol. 2 No. 5 P. e207-e208
In studies of massive changes in social life, researchers often have to rely on low-quality retrospective data such as memoirs and manipulated government reports as opposed to reliable data such as vital registration. The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 was an unpredictable event with large-scale consequences for the lives of millions of Russians. ...
Added: April 13, 2017
Отражение особенностей традиционного питания в генофондах народов с лесо-таёжным типом природопользования
, , et al., Вестник Московского университета. Серия 23: Антропология 2020 № 3 С. 46-56
The aim was to compare frequencies of genotypes in unrelated populations of boreal zone - the Shors and Komi. Materials and methods. DNA samples from 95 ethnic Shors and 235 Komi were analyzed. The genes APOE, LCT, TREH, SI, and VDR BsmI, FokI were typed. Information on traditional food composition and the sources of food products was ...
Added: November 25, 2020
, Мониторинг общественного мнения: Экономические и социальные перемены 2014 № 5 С. 221-224
A sea change in the differentiation of moral views happened in the mid-1990s while the differences between the measurements in 1999 and 2008 are far less dramatic. The differentiation of judgements concerning homosexuality and euthanasia proceded consequentially in 1990-2008. Most equally distributed and in Russia and Belarus are the judgements about the abortion and divorce. ...
Added: March 31, 2017
, , Демоскоп Weekly 2012 № 522-526
Рассмотрены различные подходы к измерению материнской смертности, проанализирована глобальная ситуация в области материнской смертности, тенденции ее изменения. ...
Added: December 10, 2012
Особенности понимания демократии и их взаимосвязь с ресурсными характеристиками населения: на примере России и Германии
, Социологический журнал 2018 Т. 24 № 3 С. 76-97
В статье представлены результаты анализа особенностей понимания демократии на примере населения России и Германии, в том числе ее Западных и Восточных земель. Различия в трактовке этого понятия могут оказать значительное влияние на ответы респондентов об их отношении к демократии и удовлетворенности ею в стране. На данных Европейского социального исследования за 2012 г. проведен сравнительный анализ ...
Added: October 17, 2018
Culture and cognition: The Durkheimian principle of sui generis synthesis vs. cognitive-based models of culture
, American Journal of Cultural Sociology 2020 Vol. 8 No. 1 P. 63-89
Cultural sociology must catch up in taking seriously recent initiatives in the sociology of culture and cognition, represented by the works of Omar Lizardo, John Levi Martin, Stephen Vaisey, and others. However, aiming at progress in cultural analysis, these theories are partly driven by an epistemic logic alien to cultural theorizing, making the very concept ...
Added: October 14, 2019
, , Вестник Московского университета. Серия 10: Журналистика 2016 № 4 С. 3-21
The topic of demography in recent years excites a lot of discussion among politicians, economists and sociologists. These discussions are reflected in the media including on the Internet: the articles addresses issues of fertility and maternity capital, mortality and health, migration and the labor market. However in these articles it is possible to detect certain ...
Added: December 5, 2015
Регулярное общенациональное репрезентативное обследование населения по изучению демографического, социального и экономического поведения «Человек, Семья, Общество»: анализ результатов первой волны и методическая подготовка второй волны (Regular National Representative Survey of the Demographic, Social and Economic Behavior of the Population "Person, Family, Society": An Analysis of the First Wave Data and Methodical Preparation to the Second Wave)
, , et al., Регулярное общенациональное репрезентативное обследование населения по изучению демографического, социального и экономического поведения «Человек, Семья, Общество»: анализ результатов первой волны и методическая подготовка второй волны (Regular National Representative Survey of the Demographic, Social and Economic Behavior of the Population "Person, Family, Society": An Analysis of the First Wave Data and Methodical Preparation to the Second Wave) / Social Science Research Network. Серия SSRN Working Paper Series "SSRN Working Paper Series". 2015.
The paper considers demographic, social and economic behavior of the Russian population. The first chapter is based on the first wave of the survey "Person, family, society" (2013). We develop a three- criteria methodology of stratification and analyze social dynamics of middle, post-middle and proto middle groups. The second chapter contains the results of the ...
Added: January 7, 2018
, Проблемный анализ и государственно-управленческое проектирование 2011 Т. 4 № 6 С. 45-60
It is shown in the paper, that the probability of economy’s transition to innovative forms of development largely depends on the type of logic according to which economic agents evaluate the role, utility and feasibility of technological innovation as a component of development strategies of firms. ...
Added: September 30, 2012
, , Ученые записки Института Африки РАН 2019 No. 2 P. 5-14
The authors introduce the theme of African futures, and insist on the plural meanings it involves as both a concept and an empirical reality. The relationship between the continent’s futures and its multiple pasts and presents are considered, and the concept of ‘trajectory’ is used to integrate those multiple African realities into an integrated picture ...
Added: June 3, 2019
, Социологические исследования 2015 № 1 С. 55-63
Data of all-Russian surveys carried out in 2013 and 2014 by the Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences permitted to look into norms and values of Russian middle class, its views on the desirable vector of country's development. Values that guide middle class members in their everyday life are of modernized activist kind, a ...
Added: September 9, 2015
, Социум и власть 2014 № 4 С. 136-139
Book Review: Migration in Russia 2000-2012. Chrestomathy in 3 volumes. Russian International Affairs Council, Ch. Ed. IS Ivanov, Br. Ed. Zh.A. Zayonchkovskaya, comp.: N.V. Mkrtchyan, E.V. Tyuryukanova. M. Spetskniga [Special book], 2013. ...
Added: October 23, 2013
, , Journal of Futures Studies 2014 Vol. 19 No. 2 P. 21-40
The recent decade has witnessed remarkable success in various aspects of socioeconomic development in Tropical Africa. However, contrary to the “development is the best contraceptive” expectations, fertility in many countries remains stalled, frequently at very high levels of 5 and more children per woman. This actualizes the risks of population explosions, which are particularly sharp, ...
Added: October 19, 2014
, Общественные науки и современность 2012 № 3 С. 5-21
The author continues a theme begun in previous issue (see N. Tikhonovas article in Social Sciences Today, 2012, № 2). Feature of is standard-valuable system of the Russian society is shown. Actors of steady blocks of norms and values from consecutive traditionalists to nemodernists, the Russian modernists and postmodernists are discussed. Valuable preferences of two ...
Added: December 13, 2012
, , Социологическая наука и социальная практика 2021 Т. 9 № 2 С. 177-189
The student’s social ordinary attitudes concerning positive images are investigated. In 2018 there were interviewed 404 undergraduate students from one of the Moscow universities. Social attitudes were studied via the vignettes method - short stories, where the university students (girls and boys) acted as the characters in certain situations. Most respondents (more than 59.0%) approve ...
Added: July 16, 2021