Approaches to Statistical Measurement of Advanced Technologies: A Comparative Study
This monograph focuses on the nature of factors and mechanisms of the innovation processes in the Regional innovation systems with catch-up type of economy. The monograph shows that the further development of cooperation of innovation entities and the development of technological entrepreneurship in the regions of Russia is impossible without a planned and systematic processes of regionalization of the innovation business ecosystem.
The monograph substantiates that the state-owned private Regional Center for Incubation and Acceleration and the multifunctional state Single Regional Investment Fund should become the basis for the development of the ecosystem of innovative entrepreneurship in the region of the country.
The monograph is intended for researchers, graduate students, students specializing in the field of innovation management, as well as managers and decision makers who are responsible for the development of regional innovation systems.
The topic of organizational change became quite popular in recent publications of researchers and practitioners all over the world. This interest can be explained by growing market turbulence and highly dynamic development of technologies that dramatically change landscapes of particular industries. Companies that fail to change in accordance with those new trends, or cannot foresee those trends and change before they become real, are condemned to quick death. Most academic publications in this area are focused on the process and mechanisms of conducting changes in organizations, and in many cases they proceed from several simplifications related to availability of personnel of certain qualification and irreversible nature of particular changes. In this regard, many authors who try to simulate the process of organizational change under ideal conditions of the theory, reach a deadlock in practical situations when the process of implementing changes cannot even be started because it is not possible to recruit specialists of required qualifications and skills. In many cases because of the time pressure it is not even possible to provide existing specialists with additional training. Thus, it is easy to see that while simplifications cannot be implemented, and indeed these are 90% of cases of real businesses, the value of theoretical advancements in the field of practical organizational change is decreased. All this leads to the situation when theorists and practitioners exist in parallel worlds and are quite skeptical about each other’s activity. Authors of the paper for a number of years combine research and academic activity with practical managerial work on Russian plants. The paper examines particular specifics and conditions of conducting necessary changes in organizations which are “not equipped” with employees of needed qualification and there are limited opportunities to improve the situation because of the tight schedule of changes. Results of research conducted by authors will be essential, first of all, for small and medium businesses that function under considerable limitations of internal and external organizational resources.
The article analyzes problems of planning research and technological development. We consider two lines of theoretical concepts of planning, i.e., economic and mathematical versus empirical and evolu tionary. Problems of the statistical basis for constructing economic and mathematical models of scientific and technological development are studied in detail. The example of Russia is used to show that the weakness of the theoretical framework of planning leads to inconsistencies in government priorities of scientific and tech nological development.
The term of advanced technology is primarily associated with computer electronics and microelectronics actively developing since 1960s. Although there is no single conventional definition of the notion or specific class of technology that is associated with it, discussions on what may be considered as technical advancements in the current perspective evolve over time. As long as there is continuous interest in rise, development and dissemination of new technologies, especially from the policy-making perspective, it is important to understand which specific issues arise in professional discourse over certain time periods. This paper focuses on evolution of a communication core in academic discussions on advanced technologies identified with the use of betweenness centrality and PageRank metrics applied to a co-citation network of publications from 1960 until 2015. It is shown that there is observable penetration of the term from social sciences to natural and engineering disciplines.
The article discusses the importance of the implementation of educational programs for pre-school children to study the basics of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM-knowledge), as the scientific basis of development in today’s world of technological transition. Overview of the current situation in preschool education shows that STEM-knowledge gives preschoolers great potential for further development in primary and secondary schools. Studies also show that boys are more likely to acquire a better knowledge of mathematics and engineering sciences, which — to a certain extent — is determined by the teachers and pupils gender stereotypes concerning pre-school education. The article deals with the subject of STEM-knowledge for preschool children and the gender dimensions of its successful teaching. The two important parts of education policy should be implemented: development of pre-service activities or teacher training on gender analysis in STEM-programs and wider spreading of STEM-knowledge in the municipal kindergartens. Knowledge of gender differences should not lead to the development of gender dichotomy in education; on the contrary, it should lead to equal access of children to knowledge by developing motivation and positive attitudes of boys and girls to STEM-knowledge. The high importance of STEM-education is based on the fact that new information technologies and scientific approach encompass any professional activity and even everyday life of modern man.