The Doctrine of Public Education of Condorcet in Light of the Discussion on Women'S Rights and Slavery at the Beginning of the Third Republic
Present article is focused upon two samples of Early-Modern «civil sciences»: rhetorical inquiry dealing with contingency (so called «rhetorica primaria»), and mathesis politica, traditionally referring in intellectual context of the Early Enlightenment to Descartes. Special attention is paid to the famous «new sciences», which are considered in the secondary literature as antithetical: Giambattista Vico’s scienza nuova and Thomas Hobbes scientia civilis. Drawing upon almost unknown 17th century Dutch political writings, the study examines the ways of reception of Thomas Hobbes’ civil science conceived as a rhetorical inquiry. The author also explores G. Vico alternative to Hobbes’ constructionist theoretical style.
The Realist interpretation of 'War and Peace' - articulated by Martin Wight and Stanley Hoffmann - is based on Tolstoy's understanding of history as it is elaborated in his account of the Napoleonic invasion in the second epilogue of the book. There Tolstoy puts forward a mechanistic view of international relations which are assumed to be governed by inexorable laws of history determining human behaviour and limiting man's exercise of free will. However, Tolstoy's subjection of man to the workings of impenetrable laws of history in the second epilogue is at variance with a multiplicity of conscious moral choices that his three main characters - Nikolay Rostov, Andrey Bolkonsky and Pierre Bezukhov - make throughout the book. It is argued that the different treatment of the freedom vs. necessity problem in the fictional and historical narrative can only be understood contextually, i.e. from within Tolstoy' rejection of the Enlightenment tradition of scientific and moral inquiry.
Due to high dynamics of change in modern socio-economical environment, companies have to generate new methods of responsiveness to arising challenges. One of the ways to gain sufficient competitive advantage is quality orientation. Although Kaizen is deemed to be one of the core elements of quality improvements, its modern impact is being underestimated. Four basic components of the philosophy - essence, innovation, personal and quality control allows to frame an integrated quality system which will lead to performance improvement. Arising discussion is formulated as following - how to implement these four elements into organizational structure. The central contribution and novelty of this paper is a contemporary integrated approach on improvement internal organizational processes on the basis of Kaizen. The study uncovers several conceptual blocks: theoretical basis of Kaizen philosophy, comparative analysis of methods to implement Kaizen in organization; development of method to implement Kaizen concept, evaluation of «Kaizen effect». The research adopted case study method, collecting data from various sources – documentation investigation, structured questionnaire and interviews - in order to ensure its representativity. The paper would be useful not only for scientists discovering modern Kaizen impact, but also for experts willing to implement kaizen philosophy on practice.
This article is dedicated to the problem of the origin of economics. The socio-cultural conditions for the emergence of a new science are considered: the accumulated practical knowledge that accompanied the development of trade, industry, and eventually led to the emergence of a market economy; theoretical and practical knowledge from rich literary sources; the Ancient, Medieval and Modern Time philosophers interest in the ongoing economic processes, posing questions about these processes, revealing the problems of meaning and signifi cance of economic events for the society. The article especially focuses on the Scottish philosophers of the 17 and 18th centuries F. Hutcheson, D. Hume and A. Ferguson, the socio-economic views of the latter being of special importance as well as the views of Adam Smith, whose ideas show close affi nity between the thinkers.