Dependent and Independent social enterprises: a comparative study of organizations in international perspective
The theoretical basis of work is the notion of legitimation as a complex mechanism of social approval of a new phenomenon taking place with the active participation of different social groups and structures, able to influence its final form. In the focus of the empirical analysis the representations of social entrepreneurship that main actors of its legitimacy in Russia have. Among them are: the state, foundations, NPOs and business. We assess the (in)consistency between their representations as well as the reflection of these representations in the characteristics of existing organizations of social entrepreneurship (social enterprises).
Business, government and NPOs are understood as external actors of social enterprise legitimation, as without their recognition the legitimation will not take place. In turn, social enterprises, regardless of whether they come from for-profit or non-profit sector, are seen as objects of legitimation, or as a new actor, not identical to any of the above. It is shown that the contradictions in the positions of key actors can lead to mutually exclusive projects of legitimation of a new phenomenon, so that they will undermine the cognitive and moral legitimacy of each other. The empirical data include the results of the authors survey of 202 social enterprises.
There are many interpretations of the concept "social entrepreneurship." Systematization of this concept is very important for research purposes, as well as for the development of the regulatory and legislative framework. This paper considers an attempt this systematization by distinction of the social entrepreneurship forms.
“Social Investment and Impact Measurement” session proceedings
This article aims to provides a theoretical overview of social stock exchanges, as innovative tools of social investment attracting. In the article we define functions of SSEs, its main features and compare SSEs with traditional stock exchanges.
The article proposes a definition and empirical grounds of social enterprise fit for identify and clarify social effect of such businesses. Based on the study of 15 companies, operating mainly in small and medium towns of Russia, analyzes the performance of managers, for the development and creation of new rules and practices that are significant for the achievement not only production, but also for social purposes. The proposed typology of social enterprises that differ in their socio-cultural projects, and describes the forms of existence of such projects.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.