Twelfth-Century Rise Of Spelling Reforms: The Ormulum And The First Grammatical Treatise
This article explores the way in which loanwords become incorporated into a recipient language. It concentrates on the interim period, the time between the borrowing of a new word from a donor language and its incorporation into a recipient language. During this period the new word still retains some of its “foreignness”, its associations with another language and culture, therefore its stylistic potential is enhanced. The material is taken from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, an English poem written in the latter half of the 14th century, at the time of the greatest influx of French words into English. This article shows that the Gawain-poet uses gallicisms as an expressive part of his poetic technique due to their stylistic potential as what were at the time recent borrowings.
Abstract: The article focuses on the conceptualization and categorization of the concept DWELLING in the English-speaking worldview of the Middle English period (XI - XIV centuries). The chatacteristic features of the Medieval houses as well as people’s views about this segment of reality become apparent through the linguistic interpretation. Thus, the concept manifests itself in the mind and finds its representation within the frame of the nominative field of DWELLING, constituted of language units.
The study analyzes the genesis of the modern attitude towards spelling and spelling mistakes in Germany and in Russia in the nineteenth century, showing that both the spelling norms and the relevance of their violation are social constructions to do with major developments of the time such as industrialization, political reaction, proliferation of literacy and mass schooling, and introduction of exams and grading as means to check the upward social mobility via education.
The article considers the development of word semantics during the Old- and Middle English periods and reflects the notion of DWELLING representing the onomaseological field of the aforementioned notion.
The aim of this article is to trace the paths of transmission to and within medieval and early modern Wales of traditions concerning the Virtues of the Mass, the benefits accruing from attending Holy Mass. These benefits are found both as lists and as parts of poems in Middle Welsh manuscripts, and correspond to a wealth of similar material in Latin, English, Irish, and other European vernaculars. Since the texts are products of popular religion rather than part of the canonical teaching of the Church, they are extremely fluid, which, in combination with their wide dissemination, would make the exact mapping of their genesis and distribution in Europe a long-term research project in itself. However, even a more limited consideration of these texts can significantly improve our understanding of Middle Welsh religious texts and the patterns of knowledge transfer across borders. In this contribution we shall present the relevant Middle and Early Modern Welsh texts in section I and some corresponding Latin texts in section II, then Middle English and Late Medieval Irish traditions in sections III and IV, before providing some tentative conclusions.
The paper reviews D.G. Miller's recent book, "External influences on English: From its beginnings to the Renaissance".