Natural Resources And Economic Growth In Russia’s Regions
In this paper we document the negative link between cities' age and their average wage in Russian dataset. This link is persistent after control-ling for geographical, demographic, economic, and environmental factors as well as for various years. This link is revealed especially for cities founded after the Soviet industrialization and for upper quantiles of cities by their average wages. The established fact is used for discussion of a number of hy-potheses as to spatial patterns of economic performance. It weighs against the increasing return hypothesis, in-stitutional hypoth-esis and simple geographical hypothesis. At the same time, it is basi-cally in line with the so-phisticated geographical hypothesis. Specically, changing spatial patterns of wage dierentials are explained by changing importance of natural resources and their proven deposits.
Find the content of the national wealth as the basis of its economic security and how protected criminal law values appear especially natural component of the national wealth, including such elements as the territory of the country, its geographical location, climate, land, water, atmospheric air, flora and fauna, resources. Suggestions to improve the relevant norms of criminal law and its application.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.