The Importance of Job Characteristics to Women's Fertility Intentions and Behavior in Russia
The analysis of current trends of fertility, family planning and family policy in Russia is presented in chapter. The special attention is paid to changes in age profile of fertility, changes in structure of firtility by birth order, current and expected cohort total fertility, to ethnic and regional differentials in fertlity and in abortion prevalence, regional specifics of demographic and family policy. The analysis was carried out on the basis of detailed and, often, unpublished statistical information from Rosstat, Ministry of Public Health, Ministry of Labor, Social insurance fund, and also on representative for Russia sample surveys.
Markedly low fertility rates in Russia and western European countries are real challenges for these states. The governments should determine what considerations guide the people who refuse giving birth to their fi rst or subsequent children, as well as the should understand what measures they can encourage parents to increase the number of children. The following paper shows that, as in Europe, it is very important in Russia to take into account indirect costs of children, and in Russia a parent who is meant in this situation is the mother. However, for Russia the possibility to have children is very closely related to the type of locality, which in the case of our country also means the difference in income and the difference in the established system of external child care.
Russia has a long history of pronatalist policies dating back to the 1930s. Two sets of pronatalist measures were implemented during the past 40 years. The one designed in the early 1980s proved to be a clear failure. Instead of raising fertility, completed cohort fertility declined from 1.8 births per woman for the 1960 to 1.6 for the 1968 birth cohort. The government of president Putin became very concerned with the dire demographic conditions of high mortality and low fertility in Russia in the1990s and early 2000s. Among others, a reasonably comprehensive set of pronatalist measures came into effect on 1 January 2007. The period total fertility rate increased from1.3 births per woman in 2006 to 1.6 in 2011 which the authorities view as an unqualified success. An unbiased demographic evaluation as well as analyses of Russian experts reveals that apparently the measures mainly caused a lowering of the age at birth and shortening of birth intervals. It appears that any real fertility increase is questionable, i.e. cohort fertility is not likely to increase appreciably. The recent pronatalist measures may turn out to be a failure.
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is an important management construct. Despite previous investigations in relation to social capital, the role of networks in its emergence has received only limited attention. In this paper we investigate the relationship between OCB, with data collected from supervisors evaluating their subordinates; several types of organizational networks (professional, friendship, support, supervisor-subordinate), and several other constructs (collected from the employees themselves), shown to affect OCB in the past. All data were collected at a large insurance company in Russia. Outcomes of this study have several important implications. First, the impact of networks on manifestation of OCB depends not only on the strength of network ties, but on types of network. Second, interorganizational relationships are complex and consist of several levels of mediated relationships. Results of this study can impact the theoretical understanding of OCB and have practical implications for the supervisor-subordinate relationships in the workplace.
We assess whether a relationship between employment characteristics and fertility exists in the low-fertility context of Russia. Using multiple data sources (Generations and Gender Survey and the Employment and Education Survey), we study both intentions and transitions to the first and second birth. Our analysis aims to shed light on multiple stages in the reproductive life course of recent cohorts in Russia. In general, we find evidence that reconciliation of work and family roles is related to childbearing; in particular, job characteristics that are considered family-friendly are positively associated with intentions and behavior in Russia. More specifically, we find stronger relationships between job characteristics and having a second birth than the timing of entering parenthood. Although self-employment is positively related to both second parity intentions and conceptions, differences exist between other determinants of intentions and conceptions. Attitudes toward work and family roles appear to be related to fertility intentions to only a small extent and do not mediate relationships between job characteristics and intentions.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.