The chapter presents the results of the research of aculturation of migrants in Eastern European countries
In Christoph, Prokhorov and Ulyanov (Theory Probab Appl 40(2):250–260, 1996) we studied properties of high-dimensional Gaussian random vectors. Yuri Vasil’evich Prokhorov initiated these investigations. In the present paper we continue these investigations. Computable error bounds of different orders with respect to n for the approximations of sample correlation coefficients and the angle between high-dimensional Gaussian vectors by the standard normal law are obtained. We give some numerical results as well. Moreover, different types of Bartlett corrections are suggested.
The chapter discusses the possibilities and limitations of different policy measures aimed at promoting behavior change at a large-group scale.
We consider an undirected multi(commodity)flow demand problem in which a supply graph is planar, each source-sink pair is located on one of three specified faces of the graph, and the capacities and demands are integer-valued and Eulerian. It is known that such a problem has a solution if the cut and (2,3)-metric conditions hold, and that the solvability implies the existence of an integer solution. We develop a purely combinatorial strongly polynomial solution algorithm.
This paper studies “informal” new media uses, from a critical and empirical perspective, by employing relevant literature on the promises of new media and everyday life culture, and by interviewing various people engaged with different in-formal new media/ICT activities. By new media and ICTs, I refer to portable, mass-produced and consumed digital devices (for example, tablets, smartphones, or laptops among other), and a variety of software programs and applications that enable individuals to do things on their own or with others. I am also including digital portals, platforms, the so-called social media, communica-tional networks, as well as peer-to-peer structures and open-source/free software systems and licenses enabled by digital technologies. These elements bring im-portant changes to social life; they alter the ways in which we perceive the world, the ways we work, the ways we inform ourselves and learn new skills, and the ways that politics are performed by authorities and by citizens.
Robot navigation through crowds poses a difficult challenge to AI systems, since the methods should result in fast and efficient movement but at the same time are not allowed to compromise safety. Most approaches to date were focused on the combination of pathfinding algorithms with machine learning for pedestrian walking prediction. More recently, reinforcement learning techniques have been proposed in the research literature. In this paper, we perform a comparative evaluation of pathfinding/prediction and reinforcement learning approaches on a crowd movement dataset collected from surveillance videos taken at Grand Central Station in New York. The results demonstrate the strong superiority of state-of-the-art reinforcement learning approaches over pathfinding with state-of-the-art behavior prediction techniques.
Inconsistency of business processes can affect company profits and lead to the loss of regular customers and reputation in the market. Well managed business process has one key distinctive feature – a consistency. Checking the consistency of business process helps to reveal hidden bugs in the process model, but requires considerable labor costs and analytics. We compared two approaches to verifying consistency. The first approach is based on generating object life cycles for each object type used in process and supported by special tool as an extension for IBM WebSphere Business Modeler. Another one is a proposition to use DEMO methodology for verifying consistency. The results of research show that DEMO methodology enables significantly reduce labor costs and improve quality of analyze
This article is devoted to the comparative study of the prosody of the early Dutch, German and Russian iambic tetrameter.
In recent years more and more participants of the retail segment of the banking sector of Russia are launching platform-based value chains along with traditional linear value chains. As a result, business organizations are transforming into a complex system within which customers, banks and retail chains enter into business relations with each other as well as the platform itself, the owner of which is one of the participants of this interaction. A new kind of value exchange is the result of this which has become possible due to the existence of the platform. Platforms complement and compete with linear value chains in order to attract customers. In this article a comparison of these two types of value chains is presented using the example of purchasing goods by installments in Russia, their peculiar workings are also distinguished.
There are many applications where the comparison of histograms (discrete random variables, fuzzy set on discrete universal set) is required with the help of relationship of type ”more-less”. There are many approaches to solving this problem. The relations between some popular stochastic and fuzzy orderings are investigated in the article. The simple formulas for calculating the number of comparisons obtained, as well as established relationships between the various comparisons. The new approach for comparison of histogram is proposed in this paper too. This approach is based on the calculation of minimum directional transform of one histogram in another histogram.
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to determine the scenarios innovational development of the Russian AIC in the conditions of the EAEU and to develop a competitive model of this development. Methodology: The authors use the method of qualitative scenario analysis for determining the scenarios of innovational development of the Russian AIC in the conditions of the EAEU and the method of modeling of socio-economic processes and systems and the method of formalization (graphic presentation of the results of modeling) for creating a competitive model of innovational development of the Russian AIC in the conditions of the EAEU. Results: Three scenarios of innovational development of the modern Russia’s AIC are determined–technical modernization, ecologization, and transition to AIC 4.0–each of which envisages narrow specialization and cannot guarantee high competitiveness of the studied complex. For receiving the highest advantages from innovational development of the modern Russia’s AIC, it is offered to combine all three scenarios that have to determine the directions of this development. Due to this, the manufactured food products will be diversified and, therefore, will be less dependent on the change of consumer preferences in separate segments of the market and fluctuations of the world prices for food. This will ensure high global competitiveness of development of the Russian AIC, as the platform of the EAEU will provide export to the participants of this integration union and to the world markets. Recommendations: A competitive model of innovational development of the Russian AIC in the conditions of the EAEU is developed and recommended for practical application. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020.
The paper presents an extension for the JavaBeans component model that enables creating composed components dynamically, at runtime, without code generation. The composed components created can be used immediately for instantiation having their instances used for execution or for further components composition. The dynamic abilities are supported by extended type implementation based on additional superstructure provided with its Java API implementation and corresponding JavaBeans components. Using the component model and base components it provides, the new component composition is performed by building the composed prototype object that can be dynamically transformed into the new composed instantiable type. The component model can be used when implementing user defined types in declarative languages for event-driven models description.
The Russian Constructicon project currently prioritizes multi-word constructions that are not represented in dictionaries and that are especially useful for learners of Russian. The immediate goal is to identify constructions and determine the semantic constraints on their slots. The Russian Constructicon is being built in parallel with the Swedish Constructicon and will ultimately model the entire Russian language in terms of constructions at all levels from morpheme to discourse. The contents of the Russian Constructicon will serve learners of the language, linguists researching both language-internal and typological phenomena, and will also serve language technology applications such as spell checkers and automated readability assessment tools.
The functionals related to the quality of the system control are obtained
in the analytic form. The statement that the optimal strategy of controlling
the system is a deterministic strategy is proved. Analytic form representation
for the function the absolute extremum of which is determined as the optimal
control strategy is obtained also.
The present paper aims at investigating the productivity of the prefixoid samo- (‘self’) in Russian compounds from a diachronic perspective. In order to verify the hypothesis that the productivity of this prefixoid has grown over time, I consider the occurrences of samo-compounds in the Russian National Corpus, dividing the main corpus into four subcorpora, each one representing a particular time span: the 18th century, the 19th century, the 20th century and the period that lasts from the beginning of the 21st century to the present day. The approach chosen is quantitative in nature, and is based on the measure of “potential productivity” (Baayen & Lieber 1991; Baayen 1992, 1993), which is calculated by dividing the number of hapax legomena with a certain affix by the number of tokens with that affix. This measure, however, seems inadequate for the comparison of differently-sized corpora. To overcome this problem, I resort to parametric statistical models of frequency distribution known as LNRE (Large Number of Rare Events) models (Baayen 2001). These models, which allow extrapolating the expected values of types and hapax legomena with a given affix for arbitrary values of tokens, are implemented in the package zipfR (Baroni & Evert 2014), a tool for lexical statistics in R, which is used for this study.
Recent theories of cognitive control put large emphasis on theta oscillations in relation to action monitoring. Multiple EEG studies of cognitive control revealed increased power of theta oscillations restricted to midfrontal areas, while there is a substantial body of functional connectivity data demonstrating that theta oscillations may be a carrier of informational exchange over multiple cortical regions. fMRI studies revealed immense distributed networks involved in cognitive control. Paradoxically, MEG has been considered almost insensitive to theta oscillations in such an experimental context. It also remains debatable what is the functional role of such theta oscillations. An influential line of evidence links feedback-related theta oscillations to two types of prediction errors (unsigned and signed), but this distinction has not been tested during trial-end-error learning with theta activity measured beyond the midfrontal cortex.
We recorded MEG while participants were involved in trial-and-error learning within a novel multiple-choice behavioral task with complex stimulus-to-response mapping. Three conditions were analyzed: correct and erroneous trials during the initial stage of learning acquisition, as well as correct trials during stable performance. Sources of MEG activity were analyzed using minimum-norm estimation method within 4-6 Hz frequency range.
We revealed a number of bilateral cortical areas that displayed theta oscillations to the feedback signal: in addition to the "classical" medial frontal areas (the anterior part of the medial cingulate cortex and the pre-supplementary motor area), this network included the insula and the auditory cortex, the frontal operculum and posterior inferior frontal gyrus, the premotor cortex, the paracentral lobule, and the posterior part of the medial cingulate cortex. Granger causality analysis revealed overall communication directed from lateral to medial sites. During the initial stage of trial-and-error learning, we observed a strong non-differential response to feedback signal that reflected an unsigned component of the prediction error. The signed component of the prediction error was observed later – with greater theta activations after errors compared with correct responses.
Thus, using MEG, we were able to reveal a distributed network of brain areas in relation to feedback-related processing that included not only medial frontal, but also auditory areas, insula, lateral frontal, and medial parietal areas. The data obtained confirm the existence of two components of the prediction error, and this distinction was evident all over the network revealed.
The study was implemented in the framework of the Basic Research Program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE) in 2018.
An appendix to this paper, written by Alexander Magazinov, presents a 2-dimensional counterexample to a natural conjecture involving the geometric mean.
According to the embodied cognition theory, speech is largely based on the body motor and sensory experience. The question, which is crucial for our understanding of the origin of language, is how our brain transforms sensory-motor experience into word meaning. We have developed an auditory-motor experimental procedure that allowed investigating neural underpinning of word meaning acquisition by way of associative "trial-and-error" learning that mimics important aspects of natural word learning. Participants were presented with eight pseudowords; four of them were assigned to specific body part movements during the course of learning – through commencing actions by one of participant’s left or right extremities and receiving a feedback. The other pseudowords did not require actions, and were used as controls. Magnetoencephalogram was recorded during passive listening of the pseudowords before and after learning. The cortical sources of the magnetic evoked responses were reconstructed using distributed source modeling (MNE software). Neural responses to newly learnt words were significantly enhanced as compared to control pseudowords in a number of temporal and frontal cortical regions surrounding the Sylvan fissure of the left hemisphere. Learning-related cortical activation was inversely related to the number of trials needed to acquire the word meaning (this value varied between participants from 74 to 480 trials to the learning criterion). Our findings revealed a neural signature of associative learning of meaning of nonsense words and highlighted the role of sensory-motor transformation for association-grounded word semantics.